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 Post subject: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016-2018
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:03 pm 
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Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016-2018

+++ Documented Cases of H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles +++ General Information on the Outbreak +++ Maps +++ Updates +++ Current News +++

Note: “To date, no human infections with this virus have ever been reported world-wide and the risk of zoonotic transmission to the general public in EU/EEA countries is considered to be very low.” (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) in Europe – 18 November 2016. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016)


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:08 pm 
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Fast Facts: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8)

  • Three types of influenza viruses exist: A, B and C
  • The avian influenza viruses belong to type A
  • Avian influenza (avian flu, bird flu) = a disease mainly of birds
  • There are two groups or categories: Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
  • LPAI can mutate into HPAI
  • Within these two groups there are different virus strains. The recent H5N8 strain causes highly pathogenic avian influenza
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) = high mortality rate in affected birds
  • In which European countries has H5N8 been detected since October 2016? Map: https://iadm.carto.com/me
  • Is it possible to distinguish whether raptors and other scavenging birds ate contaminated carrion or whether they were actually infected with H5N8? A report by the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) says yes. In the latter case a high virus load can be found in the respiratory tract (not in the gastrointestinal tract). (FLI: Hochpathogene Aviäre Influenza, FAQ, 08.12.2016. In German language)

Do you want more information?


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:12 pm 
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Avian Flu Outbreak 2014/2015 vs. 2016/2017: What´s the Difference?

  • “The pattern of this year’s reports is different to previous years (2014/15) when this virus was first detected in Europe. The mortality events and the species of wild waterfowl affected might indicate possible changes in virus pathogenicity and/or changes in host specificity. However significant uncertainties exist at this early stage and other wild waterfowl species may be infected without mortality.” Samuel Wright, Jonathan Smith, Professor Ian Brown: Updated Outbreak Assessment number 2, 11th November 2016. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs and Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK

  • Map: Detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H5N8) in wild birds and poultry, Europe and neighbouring regions, November 2014 to February 2015 and October to December 2016. Source: ECDC http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArt ... leId=22663

  • According to the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), the level of mortality is unprecedented in German wild birds, poultry and zoo birds. 2 December 2016. Update, March 2017 https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... wl-plague/

  • Different avian species are susceptible to infection. Since mid-November instances of disease in White-tailed Eagles have been reported from several European countries

  • Update, January 2017: “A new reassortant influenza A(H5N8) virus is responsible for the recent HPAIV outbreak in Germany. The observed differences in pathogenicity for a broad spectrum of waterfowl compared with that of H5N8 viruses from 2014–2015 correlate with a new genome composition of these viruses.” Source: Pohlmann A, Starick E, Harder T, Höper D, Globig A, Staubach C, et al. Outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry caused by reassorted influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Apr. Read more https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/16-1949_article

  • Avian influenza overview 2016/2017: “The A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic occurred in 29 European countries in 2016/2017 and has been the largest ever recorded in the EU in terms of number of poultry outbreaks, geographical extent and number of dead wild birds.” European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, October 2017 https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications- ... ugust-2017


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:19 pm 
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H5N8 Risk for Humans

  • According to the World Health Organization, “human infection with the A(H5N8) virus cannot be excluded, although the likelihood is low, based on the limited information obtained to date. It should be noted that human infection with A(H5N6) of related clade 2.3.4.4 has already occurred.” WHO: Assessment of risk associated with influenza A(H5N8) virus, 17 November 2016
    http://www.who.int/influenza/human_anim ... 201611/en/
  • Risk Estimation, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 22 December 2016: "So far, no human cases of HPAIV H5N8 infection have been reported. Due to the genetic variability no reliable conclusions with regard to the virulence of the currently circulating pathogen are possible at present." https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... nza-hpaiv/

More information


WHO Public health advice

  • Avoid contact with any birds (poultry or wild birds) or other animals that are sick or are found dead and report them to the relevant authorities.
  • Wash hands properly with soap or a suitable disinfectant.
  • Follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.

See also the WHO video: Influenza, an Unpredictable Threat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhhJfT86Bgg


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:22 pm 
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Useful Links & Explanation of Abbreviations


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 8:27 pm 
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H5N8 News


  • 2016, December 08. Europe. “Current concerns among veterinarians include the potential ability of A(H5N8) to infect mammals such as cats and dogs: thus precautions should be put in place to minimise the risk of exposure for these animals.” Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 49 http://eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle ... leId=22663

  • 2016 December 19. South Korea. “The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs said Monday a highly pathogenic H5N8 strain of the flu virus was found in a wild bird's excrement near Anseong Stream in Gyeonggi Province. This strain is the same one that spread in 2014, but different from H5N6, which has swept the country except for Jeju Island since November.” (The Korea Times) Read more: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/na ... 20430.html

  • 2017, January 18. China. “The national reference lab confirmed the samples from dead black swans in a poultry farm in Hanyang district of Wuhan city in Hubei province tested positive for H5N8 HPAIV. 99 black swans died by 9th, Jan.” http://www.flu.org.cn/en/news-18934.html

  • 2017 March 31. Europe. Risk Estimation, FLI/Germany. “The detection of HPAIV H5N8 in 29 European countries (…) and the rapid distribution of the virus indicate a highly dynamic spatial spread of the infection. For the first time since onset of the current fowl plague epidemic the number of reports in wild birds has decreased considerably; in contrast, new outbreaks are reported almost daily from the German region with the highest poultry density in Lower Saxony. This is the most severe and most long-lasting fowl plague epidemic in Europe and Germany since outbreaks have been recorded.” Read more: https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... wl-plague/

  • 2017, April 05. Denmark. According to the just released Eagle Project Report 2016, the Danish Ornithological Society (DOF) was at the end of the year aware of eight sea eagles which showed symptoms of avian influenza and were found dead or dying. Read more (PDF in Danish): Årsrapport 2016, Projekt Ørn, DOF https://www.dof.dk/naturbeskyttelse/art ... orter-orne

  • 2017, April 06. South Korea: Experimental infection of dogs with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385007

  • 2017, April 12. Map: H5N8 in Europe October 2016 - April 2017 (© European Union, 1995-2017) https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/fi ... 17_map.pdf

  • 2017, June 22. H5N8 confirmed in South Africa http://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/News-Room/Media-release

  • 2017, October 22. Defra update: Avian influenza (bird flu) in Europe and in the UKhttps://www.gov.uk/government/publica ... -in-europe

  • 2017, October 31. Japan. “Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (…) continue to be reported in wild bird populations. Due to the possibility that the virus is spreading from white-tailed eagles that come in to eat the fish that are scattered as feed for the cranes, this practice has been stopped in some areas.” http://www.nippon.com/en/features/c03907/

  • 2017, November 02. New Study: Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016 EID Journal, Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017 (ahead of print) https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/12/17-1062_article

  • 2017, November 08. Risk Assessment, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... wl-plague/

  • 2017, November 13. Danish White-tailed Eagle population declines for the first time in two decades due to H5N8. DOF http://www.dof.dk/om-dof/nyheder?nyhed_id=1606

  • 2017, November 14. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands.
    EID Journal, Volume 23, Number 12, December 2017 (ahead of print) https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/12/17-1086_article

  • 2017, November 21. The latest updates on avian influenza (bird flu) in winter 2017 to 2018. DEFRA https://www.gov.uk/government/news/avia ... 17-to-2018

  • 2017, December 05. Migratory bird infected with H5N6 bird flu in Southern Taiwan. According to the article, “the H5 subtype found in this incident was different from the previous bird flu strains reported in Hsinchu in February of this year; however, the result showed similarity in the gene with the H5N8 bird flu found in Europe (…).” Taiwan News https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3313222

  • 2017, December 06. Global situation update, map. Source: FAO http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRI ... pdate.html


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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:03 pm 
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Maps/Regular Updates - Avian Influenza 2016/2017

Global Animal Disease Information System http://empres-i.fao.org/eipws3g/#h=0
Europe - Avian Influenza Outbreaks since 28 October 2016. https://iadm.carto.com/me



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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:21 pm 
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List of Cases

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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm 
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Germany



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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:23 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:26 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:27 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 8th, 2016, 9:37 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 13th, 2016, 5:37 pm 
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Sweden - case is under investigation



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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 13th, 2016, 5:37 pm 
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Sweden - Case is under investigation



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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 13th, 2016, 5:38 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Avian Influenza H5N8 in White-tailed Eagles 2016/2017
PostPosted: December 16th, 2016, 5:24 pm 
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