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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
PostPosted: January 3rd, 2012, 9:17 pm 
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Collection of links on international publications on LSE - various languages, full text available online

Here you find texts in languages other than English. If the text is available in more than one language, you will find a corresponding note. Some articles may have a summary in English.

Translation wanted? Please look here: http://www.looduskalender.ee/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=331

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If you want to use a (translated) text for any other than private purposes, you'll need to ask the author/publisher for permission.


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
PostPosted: January 3rd, 2012, 9:20 pm 
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Index

    1. Abhängigkeit der Lebensraumqualität des Schreiadlers von der Landwirtschaft. Wolfgang Scheller (2010)

    2. Heimzug, verspätete Frühjahrsankunft, vorübergehender Partnerwechsel und Bruterfolg beim Schreiadler Aquila pomarina. Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Christiane Meyburg, Joachim Matthes & Hinrich Matthes

    3. Zur Biologie des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina). Meyburg, B.-U. (1970)

    4. Versuche zur künstlichen Steigerung der Vermehrungsrate des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) zu seinem Schutze Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg (1971)

    5. Zur Ernährung des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) in der Ostslowakei unter atypischen klimatischen Bedingungen. Palasthy, J. & B.-U. Meyburg (1973)

    6. Gelegegröße und Bruterfolge des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) und des Kaiseradlers (Aquila heliaca) in der ostslowakischen Karpaten 1966-1978. Svehlik, J. & B.-U. Meyburg (1979)

    7. Der Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) als Hochgebirgsjäger im Kaukasus. Meyburg, B.-U. & C. Meyburg (1988)

    8. Der Schreiadler Aquila pomarina: Bestandssituation und derzeitiger Stand seiner Erforschung. Bernd-U. Meyburg. (1996)

    9. Individuelle Kennzeichnung von Schreiadlern Aquila pomarina : Methoden, bisherige Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse. Danko, S., B.-U. Meyburg, T. Belka & D. Karaska (1996)

    10. Zum Kainismus beim Schreiadler Aquila pomarina. Bernd-U. Meyburg (1999)

    11. Zug und Verfolgung der Greifvögel in der südlichen Türkei. Bernd-U. Meyburg (2005)

    12. Geschlechtsreife, Ansiedlungsentfernung, Alter und Todes- ursachen beim Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) (2005)

    13. Analyse schlechter Reproduktionsergebnisse beim Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) in Brandenburg im Jahr 2009 (2010)

    14. Satelliten-Telemetrie bei einem juvenilen Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) auf dem Herbstzug by Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller und Christiane Meyburg (1993)

    15. Zug und Überwinterung des Schreiadlers Aquila pomarina: Satellitentelemetrische Untersuchungen (1995)

    16. GPS-Satelliten-Telemetrie beim Schreiadler Aquila pomarina: Aktionsraum und Territorialverhalten im Brutgebiet (2006)

    17. Hohe Mortalität bei Jung- und Altvögeln: Todesursachen von Schreiadlern (2009)

    18. Satelliten-Telemetrie beim Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) (2009)

    19. Überwinterungsökologie: Schreiadler und Blutschnabelweber. (2010)

    20. Eine Bodenbrut des Schreiadlers Aquila pomarina. By Š. Pcola (1991)

    21. Eine Felsenbrut des Schreiadlers Aquila pomarina. By Roman Reištetter (1991)

    22. Funktionsraumanalysen - ein Zauberwort der Landschaftsplanung mit Auswirkungen auf den Schutz von Schreiadlern (Aquila pomarina) und anderen Großvögeln (2011)

    23. Schreiadler-Symposium der Deutschen Wildtier-Stiftung (2011)

    24. Untersuchungen zur Brutbiologie und Nahrungsökologie des Schreiadlers Aquila pomarina mittels ferngesteuerter Videokamera: Zur Technik und einigen Ergebnissen (1996)

    25. Väike-Konnakotka (Aquila pomarina) Kaitse Tegevuskava Aastateks 2009-2013

    26. Steinadler und Schreiadler. Bernd Kamphuis (2006)

    27. Zurück zur Natur by Gerold Büchner (2011)

    28. German Bird Park in Marlow opens an aviary for LSE (2011)

    29. Küken geschlüpft: Nachwuchs bei Familie Schreiadler (2012)

    30. Bei Familie Greif in die Kinderstube geschaut (2012)




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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
PostPosted: January 3rd, 2012, 9:21 pm 
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Index


    31. Mit Fröschen und Mäusen zum Pilotenschein (2012)

    32. Les Aigles ... | L'interview d'Urmas Sellis (2012?)

    33. Einer flog aus dem Schreiadlernest (2012)

    34. Bedrohte Tierarten: Ein Horst ist zu klein für Kain und Abel (2012)

    35. Jungvogelmanagement - eine Sofortmaßnahme zur Unterstützungder bedrohten Population des Schreiadlers. Abschlussbericht (2012)

    36. Viele Adler sterben an Bleivergiftung (2012)

    37. Beskidzki orlik żegna się z Afryką? (2013)

    38. Heimkehrer überqueren den Äquator (2013)

    39. Schreiadler Narcis ist wieder da / First small spotted eagle with GPS transmitter returns to Romanian nest after flying 26,000 km (2013)

    40. Ką gali papasakoti paukščio žiedas? / ["What a bird ring can tell"] (2013)

    41. Horst-Besetzung! "Ehepaar Schreiadler" hat jetzt ein Zuhause. Deutsche Wildtier Stiftung: Verfolgen Sie das Brutgeschehen in den kommenden Wochen unter http://www.Schreiadler.org (2013)

    42. Nachwuchs bei Familie Schreiadler: Das erste Küken ist geschlüpft. (10. Juni 2013)

    43. Wo leben die meisten Schreiadler? (14. Juni 2013)

    44. Schreiadler-Nachwuchs sucht Namen (18. Juni 2013)

    45. Kainismus im Schreiadler-Horst (19. Juni 2013)

    46. Un Aigle pomarin Aquila pomarina estive regulierement en Bourgogne (2008)

    47. Wenn der seltene Schreiadler zu Fuß auf die Jagd geht (20. August 2013)

    48. Zur Situation und zum Schutz der Adlerarten in Brandenburg. 1996

    49. Schreiadler am Ende der "Blei-Nahrungskette?" 1997

    50. Interessanter Fall von Prädation bei einem Schreiadlernestling (Aquila pomarina). 2000

    51. Bemerkenswerte Brutzeit-Ansammlungen von Schreiadlern Aquila pomarina im Welsebruch (Uckermark, Brandenburg). (1996)

    52. Zur Biologie des Schreiadlers in Ungarn. (1996)

    53. Abflug Richtung Afrika. (29.08.2013)

    54. Schreiadler fliegen mit GPS. (2008)

    55. Mazā ērgļa Aquila pomarina izpēte un aizsardzība Latvijā un Pasaulē. (2010)




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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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1. Abhängigkeit der Lebensraumqualität des Schreiadlers von der Landwirtschaft. Wolfgang Scheller (2010)

Full text in German as available PDF
http://www.hs-nb.de/fileadmin/FB-SG/LandschaftundUmwelt/Vortraege_Seminare/ErnstBoll_2010/Schreiadler.pdf


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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2. Heimzug, verspätete Frühjahrsankunft, vorübergehender Partnerwechsel und Bruterfolg beim Schreiadler Aquila pomarina. Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Christiane Meyburg, Joachim Matthes & Hinrich Matthes

Full Text in German available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp133.pdf
Published in: Vogelwelt 128: 21 – 31 (2007)

Key words: Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina, migration, spring arrival, satellite telemetry,breeding success, mate change

Abstract in English:
With the help of satellite telemetry (ST) the complete spring migration route of a Lesser Spotted Eagle from winter quarters to breeding site, including all overnight stops, was documented in detail for the fi rst time. A female fi tted with transmitter left its winter quarters in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, on 21st February 1998 and 64 days later, on 25th April, arrived late at the breeding site in Germany. During 51 days it covered on average 211 km (min. 18, max. 406 km/day). Between times it rested for 13 days. Th e arrival of the female at the breeding site was observed directly. Th is enabled, for the first time, proof of a temporary partner change. Th e female (fitted with a transmitter) from the previous year immediately ousted a new female that had already paired with the last year’s male. Punctual arrival at the breeding site is one of the decisive factors governing whether adult breeding takes place. It has been repeatedly recorded in various countries over the past few years that a large number of adult Lesser Spotted Eagles arrived so late in spring that eggs were not laid. We believe that in many cases, as with the individuals with transmitters, late departure from winter quarters was the reason for the delay and not unsuitable weather en route. One possible explanation is the strongly reduced precipitation in the over-wintering regions in southern Africa as a consequence of the El Niño climatic phenomenon. Th is has probably resulted in a reduced prey density for the Lesser Spotted Eagle, perhaps forcing the birds to remain longer in their winter quarters in order to build up the necessary energy reserves for migration. It is essential that this question is further studied as it is important for breeding success and consequently population development.


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3. Zur Biologie des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina). Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg

Full Text in German available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp100p/a_rp108_Meyburg_BU_Zur%20Biologie%20des%20Schreiadlers_D.pdf
Published in: Jahrbuch Deutscher Falkenorden 1969, p. 32-66


English translation:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp100p/a_rp108_Meyburg_BU_Biology_of_the%20_Lesser_Spotted_Eagle.pdf


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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4. Versuche zur künstlichen Steigerung der Vermehrungsrate des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) zu seinem Schutze. Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg

Full text in German available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp100p/a_rp109.pdf
Published in: Beiträge zur Vogelkunde, Leipzig [u. a.] 17.1971, 3 p. 207-227

Summary in English: http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp100s/a_rp109.html

S u m m a r y

Although two chicks are hatched in about 75% of Lesser Spotted Eagle eyries there is, to date, no documentarv record of a single case where two eaglets left the nest (MEYBURG 1970). Therefore in 1968 and 1969 in Slovakia, the author conducted experiments to establish whether, with human aid, the second chick, too, could be reared to the point of leaving the eyrie, thereby affording an almost unique possibility for protecting a type of eagle threatened with extinction in some countries.
The positive result, whose pros and cons for wider application are discussed in detail, is very encouraging. lt is therefore urged that, in areas where the L. S. E. is decreasing, the method successfully tried out by the author be applied to the largest possible number of L. S. E. eyries, the procedure being as follows:
In each case one of the newly-hatched chicks or one of the eggs - which then has to be artificially incubated further - must be transferred from a L. S. E. eyrie to that of another larger bird of prey - Common Buzzard, Black Kite, Red Kite or Goshawk. The young L. S. E. will be reared by its foster-parents instead of their own young, which must be removed simultaneously. Shortly before it is due to leave the eyrie, it must be returned to a L. S. E. eyrie containing an eaglet at approximately the same stage of development. A few days later both young eagles leave the eyrie and continue to be cared for by the adults until they become independent. Chicks taken from the eyrie of the foster-parents should be distributed among eyries of the same species which contain only a few young birds.
Details of the method arc described and discussed.
In 1968 two second young birds taken from two L. S. E. eyries were reared by two pairs of Black Kites. In 1969 L. S. E. eggs were successfully incubated bv artificial means and one chick was placed in the nest of a Common Buzzard. Experience gained in these experiments is described in detail. Another question dealt with is why a different procedure, e. g. exchanging the young of different eyries so that two eagles of equal size are brought together, is unsuccessful.
In 1970 DANKO (pers. comm.), quite independently of the author, applied this method successfully to an eyrie in eastern Slovakia.
lt is recommended that experiments be made with other threatened species which present similar conditions, e. g. in Europe the Golden Engle (Aquila chrysaetos) and the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus).


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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5. Zur Ernährung des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) in der Ostslowakei unter atypischen klimatischen Bedingungen. Palasthy, J. & B.-U. Meyburg

Full text in German available as PDF: http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp200p/a_rp206.pdf
Published in: Ornithologische Mitteilungen 25.1973, 4 p. 61-72

Summary in English: http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp200s/a_rp206.html

SUMMARY

During the nestling period in 1968, the composition of the Lesser Spotted Eagle's food was investigated at nine eyries in the Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia. Considerable differences were apparent before (see Table 1) and after (see Table 2) 10 July, which were attributed to changes in the height of the vegetation following the harvest. The above-average incidence of the brown hare in the first period is explained by the fact that the L. S. E. had had to fall back on this otherwise unusual prey because the population cycle of the common vole - the bird's basic diet - was at its lowest point. The exceptionally dry, warm weather from May to July presumably prevented the L. S. E. from substituting amphibians, as was observed in low-lying land, under similar conditions, by Russian authors in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha (Byelorussia).


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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6. Gelegegröße und Bruterfolge des Schreiadlers (Aquila pomarina) und des Kaiseradlers (Aquila heliaca) in der ostslowakischen Karpaten 1966-1978. Svehlik, J. & B.-U. Meyburg (1979)

Full text available in German:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp200p/a_rp225.pdf
Published in: Journal für Ornithologie 120.1979, 4

Summary in English: http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp200s/a_rp225.html

Summary

65 Lesser Spotted Eagle and 28 Imperial Eagle breeding attempts (2 of them second clutches) were checked during 13 successive years.

47 Lesser Spotted Eagle clutches contained, on average, 1.68 eggs (15 X 1, 32 x 2). 56 chicks hatched from a total of 78 eggs. Without our intervention the loss of nestlings through Cainism would have amounted to 38 % of chicks hatched while only 32.8 % of eggs laid would have yielded fledged young, with a reproduction rate of 0.53 chicks/pair/annum for 61 breeding attempts.

13 lmperial Eagle clutches contained an average of 2.46 eggs (7 X 2 and 6 x 3) and chicks emerged from 40.6 % of 32 eggs. In 10 broods an average of 1.8 chicks hatched (2 x 1 and 8 X 2) while 31.2 % of eggs laid yielded fully fledged young. 12 out of 27 breeding attempts were successful, with an average of 1.6 young per successful brood which includes 2 broods of one and two fledglings from a pair´s second clutch. The reproduction rate was 0.76 young/pair/annum for 27 breeding attempts including the two re-layings.

The causes of losses are described where possible, and the findings compared with those of other authors regarding both species.


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - Diff. Languages (online availa
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7. Der Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) als Hochgebirgsjäger im Kaukasus. Meyburg, B.-U. & C. Meyburg (1988)

Full text available in German:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp400p/a_rp408.pdf
Published in: Journal für Ornithologie 129.1988, p. 102-103

Summary
Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina as an alpine hunter in the Caucasus -- The Lesser Spotted Eagle, which in Central, East and South-East Europe inhabits humid lowlands and hilly ground, has been regularly observed in the Caucasus, north-west Georgia, USSR, hunting over high alpine meadows above the treeline, 2,300 to 3,100 m above sea level.


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8. Der Schreiadler Aquila pomarina: Bestandssituation und derzeitiger Stand seiner Erforschung. Bernd-U. Meyburg


Only summaries in German and English available:
http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp600s/a_rp603.html


ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Der derzeitige Stand der Schreiadlerforschung wird analysiert und mit der Situation vor fünf Jahren (Meyburg 1991) verglichen. Neue Untersuchungstechniken (Bodentelemetrie, Satellitentelemetrie, fernsteuerbare Videotechnik, DNA-Sequenzierung) haben die Forschung rasch vorangetrieben, viele Ergebnisse sind jedoch noch nicht publiziert. Intensiviert wurden auch die Zählungen durchziehender Schreiadler im Herbst in Israel und an anderen Konzentrationspunkten sowie Bestandserfassungen in den Brutgebieten.

Herbstzählungen in Israel (1982-87 durchschnittlich 104.000 Individuen pro Saison, 1988-95 durchschnittlich 75.000 pro Saison) sprechen für einen Rückgang des Gesamtbestandes um über 25 % innerhalb der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte. Wie im Einzelnen dargelegt wird, können vorsichtige Hochrechnungen von Teilbeständen durchaus die Durchzugszahlen in Israel erklären.



The Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina: Population Status and Present State of Research


SUMMARY

The current knowledge of the Lesser Spotted Eagle is analysed and compared with the situation five years ago (Meyburg l991). New research techniques (ground telemetry, satellite telemetry, remote control video, DNA sequencing) have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the species, but many results of recent investigations are still unpublished. Lesser Spotted Eagle counts in autumn in Israel and at other concentration points during migration have been intensified and similarly censuses taken in the breeding territories.

Autumn counts in Israel (1982-87 an average 104,000 Lesser Spotted Eagles on passage per season, 1988-95 an average 75,000 per season) indicate a decline in the overall population of over 25% within the last two decades. This is the first case where a species described in the literature as scarce and even endangered has turned out to have a rather important world population. No count of a bird species from a migration survey ever aroused such fierce resistance from some established specialists in the breeding areas. It is therefore attempted here to correlate these migration figures to populations in all the countries where the species breeds. As is shown country by country, careful projections of population density figures from areas or countries well censused to the whole area of distribution can explain the numbers counted in Israel. In many cases one can roughly estimate the overall density for large areas or countries to be ca. 1 breeding pair per 100 km² (e.g. in Slovakia and Belarus respectively the densities for the whole country are about 1.7 breeding pairs per 100 km²). The estimated total number of pairs is given for all countries in the light of the latest assessments of numbers and density in well researched areas. A total population of 20,000 pairs is presumed which attempt annually to breed and raise 14,000 young. The remaining 21,000 eagles are probably immatures, subadults and adult non-breeders. In addition there are probably around 4,000 first-year birds which spend the breeding season following their birth in Africa.


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9. Individuelle Kennzeichnung von Schreiadlern Aquila pomarina : Methoden, bisherige Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse.Danko, S., B.-U. Meyburg, T. Belka & D. Karaska (1996)

Only summaries in German and English available:
http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp600s/a_rp604.html


ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Viele Fragen der Biologie des Schreiadlers lassen sich, ebenso wie bei anderen Arten, nur mit Hilfe der individuellen Markierung lösen. Abgesehen von der Beringung, die in etlichen Ländern seit vielen Jahrzehnten durchgeführt wird, wurde die Markierung von Schreiadlern mit Flügelmarken, Farbringen, durch Fensterung der Armschwingen und Besenderung mit konventionellen Bodentelemetriesendern sowie Satellitensendern erst vor wenigen Jahren von uns begonnen, wobei wir auch den Fang und die Markierung von Altvögeln eingeführt haben.

Die Beringung erlaubt zwar die Markierung vieler Individuen, die Rückmeldungsrate ist jedoch gering (2,5 %). Es werden die uns bekannt gewordenen 41 Wiederfunde verschiedener Beringungszentralen (basierend auf 1649 Beringungen) und aus der Literatur zusammengestellt und in Karten veranschaulicht. Während der größte Teil der europäischen Population über den Bosporus, die Türkei, Israel und Sinai bzw. Suez nach Afrika gelangt, konnten drei weitere Routen durch Beringung und Satellitentelemetrie dokumentiert werden: 1. über Italien, Sizilien und Malta nach Tunesien, 2. über Südgriechenland, den Peloponnes und Kreta in die Türkei und 3. um das östliche Schwarze Meer herum in die Osttürkei.

Durch die Beringung konnten außer über den Zug auch einige Erkenntnisse über das Lebensalter und die Brutreviertreue gewonnen werden. Es gelang uns durch Wiederfang der sichere Nachweis, daß Altvögel zum alten Brutplatz zurückkehren und Junge sich am Geburtsort ansiedeln können.

Flügelmarken und Flügelfenster bringen nur im Zusammenhang mit zeitaufwendigen Felduntersuchungen gewisse Ergebnisse, z.B. über die Aktivität und die Größe von genutzten Nahrungsflächen (home-ranges). In dieser Hinsicht effektiver ist der Einsatz der Bodentelemetrie.

Ungeahnte Möglichkeiten bietet die Satellitentelemetrie. Die Besenderung von 10 Individuen hat bereits innerhalb kurzer Zeit erhebliche neue Erkenntnisse z.B. über Zugrouten, Winterquartier, Zuggeschwindigkeit, Rastplätze usw. gebracht, die mit Hilfe anderer Methoden nicht zu gewinnen gewesen wären und die auch beim Erarbeiten von Schutzstrategien von erheblicher praktischer Bedeutung sind. Dabei kristallisiert sich heraus, daß die Gefahren auf dem Zug bisher viel zu wenig berücksichtigt wurden und, soweit sie menschlich bedingt sind, einer energischen Gegensteuerung bedürfen. Erstmalig konnte ein Zugvogel aus Europa bis ins Winterquartier im südlichen Afrika und zurück über eine Strecke von insgesamt über 19.000 km telemetriert werden (MEYBURG et al. 1995).

Neue Solarsender werden voraussichtlich in Kürze noch viel detailliertere Ergebnisse bringen und möglicherweise auch ein längerfristiges Telemetrieren einzelner Individuen ermöglichen.



Marking Lesser Spotted Eagles Aquila pomarina: Methods, experiences and results


SUMMARY

Many questions regarding the biology of the Lesser Spotted Eagle, among other species, can be answered only by marking individual birds. Apart from ringing, which has been practised for many years in a number of countries, Lesser Spotted Eagles have recently been studied by us by methods ranging from wing markers, colour rings, window-marking (feather clipping) and tracking by conventional ground telemetry, to satellite telemetry. We also started a few years ago the trapping and marking of adults.

True, ringing enables many individuals to be marked, but the recovery rate is very low. Those 41 recoveries (from 1649 eagles ringed) known to us from different ringing stations and also compiled from the literature have been evaluated and plotted on maps. Apart from the migration, ringing can also provide certain data on the life-span and fidelity to nest site. Our recaptures have provided positive proof that adults return to the same breeding site and young can recolonise their place of birth.

Whereas the large majority of birds from Europe migrate to Africa via the Bosphorus, Turkey, Israel and the Sinai or Suez, three more migration routes have been documented by ringing recoveries and satellite telemetry: 1. via Italy, Sicily and Malta to Tunisia, 2. via southern Greece, the Peloponnese and Crete to Turkey and 3. around the eastern end of the Black Sea to Turkey.

Wing-markers and window-marking can provide positive data only in conjunction with long-term field study, e.g. regarding the exploitation and size of home ranges. In this respect the use of conventional ground telemetry is more effective.

Satellite telemetry opens up undreamed-of possibilities. The tracking of ten individuals has already, within a short space of time, produced considerable new data, e.g. on migration routes, winter quarters, speed of migration, resting places etc., which would be impossible to acquire by other means and which are also of considerable practical significance in the development of protective strategies. We can thereby pinpoint the dangers both great and small facing a bird on migration and, insofar as they are of human origin, press for energetic counter-measures. For the first time a bird migrating from Europe has been tracked all the way to its winter quarters in southern Africa and back again, over a distance of altogether 19,400 km (MEYBURG et al. 1995).


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10. Zum Kainismus beim Schreiadler Aquila pomarina. Bernd-U. Meyburg (1999)

Full text available in German:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp702.pdf
Published in: Acta ornithoecologica, Jena 4.2-4 (2001) 269–278


Key words: Aquila pomarina, Lesser Spotted Eagle, cainism, Cain-and-Abel struggle, evolution.

Abstract:
The following factors are responsible for Cainism (fatal Cain-and-Abel struggle) in the Lesser Spotted Eagle:
1. The time lapse of several days between the hatching of the two chicks, giving the first-born (Cain or C1) a more or less
considerable developmental advantage.
2. Cain’s greater weight at the time of hatching. It usually also hatches trom the larger egg.
3. The aggressiveness of the chicks towards each other.
4. The acceptance of intimidation by the inferior chick, even when there is virtually no difference in weight (e. g. in translocation experiments), to the extent that this chick hardly ventures to take part in feedings.
5. The scant attention paid by the female to the second chick. given its smaller size and, above all, its greater clumsiness in taking food due to its retarded development, shows that it holds a waning power of attraction. The food supply plays no part in this. At this time lhe nest contains an ample supply of prey.
Up to now there has been much disagreement over the meaning of second-egg laying, leading as a rule to the fledging of only one young, and over the significance of Cainism within the framework of evolution in this and other eagle species. None of the attempts to explain it so far published is really convincing. One possible explanation for the phenomenon of Cainism may well be that the species is at an evolutionarily intermediate stage of transition from two-egg to one-egg clutches.
For unknown reasons, and in contrast to earlier times, the raising of one young per breeding season is today sufficient to maintain the species. At a later stage in the course of its evolution this species, which at present lays a second egg clearly smaller than the first – one could regard this as vestigial – may well confine itself to laying no more than one egg per clutch.


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11. Zug und Verfolgung der Greifvögel in der südlichen Türkei. Bernd-U. Meyburg (2005)

Full text available in German:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp709.pdf
Published in: Ornithologische Mitteilungen 57: 12-16

Summary

The main object of a short visit to southern Turkey in March 2004 was to find out whether, and to what extent raptors, particularly Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina), and other migrating species are hunted there. The crucial centre of raptor persecution lies in the area surrounding Samandag, the southernmost town in Turkey, on the Mediterranean close to the Syrian border. This region is clearly not known as a raptor migration "bottleneck" but well deserves this designation. It is the northernmost part of the East African Rift Valley, which the raptors follow. Here, for example, on 23 March 2004, within one hour and 18 minutes observation time (14.30-15.48 hrs) I counted 77 Steppe Buzzards, 61 Lesser Spotted Eagles (all adult so far as could be judged), 29 Short-toed Eagles, 2 Black Kites, one adult Egyptian Vulture and a Kestrel (possibly resident).


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12. Geschlechtsreife, Ansiedlungsentfernung, Alter und Todes- ursachen beim Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina). By Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Tomas Belka, Stefan Danko, Janusz Wójciak, Günter Heise, Torsten Blohm und Hinrich Matthes (2005)

Full text in German available here:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp711.pdf
Published in: Limicola 19.2005, 3 p. 153-179

English translation available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp711_e.pdf

Summary

Age at first breeding, philopatry, longevity and causes of mortality in the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina

To date there are no definite conclusions as to the age at which the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina reaches sexual maturity. In the course of a long-term study we were able to trap 4- and 5-year-old ringed birds in Germany and Slovakia. A 4-year-old female and a 5-year-old male reproduced; another 4-year-old male had paired up and occupied a territory but did not breed (Tab. 1).
The 4-year-old female and 5-year-old male were already in full adult plumage, whereas the 4 year old male still had a yellow nape patch as well as many fresh juvenile type feathers on various parts of the body, including typical juvenile plumage in the rump area. From this it appears that male Lesser Spotted Eagles attain full adult plumage and sexual maturity one year later than female birds.
Both male birds had settled markedly closer (4.7 and 8 km) to their birthplace than two females (59 and 90 km) (Tab. 1). 18 adult birds reached an average age of 10.5 years (Tab. 2). Taking this and the average breeding success of the Lesser Spotted Eagle into account, it can be calculated that sexually mature females produce about 4.5 and males approx. 3.9 fledged young during their lifespan.
Shooting was by far the commonest cause of mortality of Lesser Spotted Eagles at least 11 of 30 ringed individuals (Tab. 2, 3 and 4).
Some 1 and 2-year-old ringed Lesser Spotted Eagles returned to the breeding area during the breeding season. On the other hand, a 2-year-old eagle caught in August had remained in the wintering area in Zambia (Tab. 4). The prevailing behaviour is still unclear.


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13. Analyse schlechter Reproduktionsergebnisse beim Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) in Brandenburg im Jahr 2009 (2010). By Torsten Langgemach, Paul Sömmer, Kai Graszynski, Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg & Ugis Bergmanis

Full text in German available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp900p/rp_901_Otis_18_2010_Schreiadler.pdf
Published in: Otis 18 (2010): 51 - 64


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14. Satelliten-Telemetrie bei einem juvenilen Schreiadler (Aquila pomarina) auf dem Herbstzug. By Meyburg, B.-U., Scheller, W. & Meyburg, C. (1993)

Full text in German available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp101.pdf
Published in: Journal für Ornithologie 134: 173-179 (In German with an English summary).

Summary

In 1992, for the first time a Lesser Spotted Eagle was tracked with a satellite transmitter (PTT) for 2,125 km on its migration route from its birthplace in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Northern Germany). Locations were obtained by the ARGOS system. The migration began on 16 or 17 August in a south-easterly direction. After 660 km the young eagle veered south in the Beskidy mountains on the Polish-Slovak border (about 80 km south of Katowice) and flew in an almost straight line between 19° O and 22° E on the shortest route to North Africa (not towards the Bosphorus) until after covering another 1,340 km it reached the extreme south-west of the Peloponnese (Greece) on 24 September. There it lingered for at least 12 days flying north and south, up and down the west coast before probably continuing on its migration. The abrupt cessation of signals after 8 October, notwithstanding the prime condition of the batteries, indicated that the eagle had been shot or perished in an attempt to cross the Mediterranean.


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