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 Post subject: LSE Full Text Documents - English (online available)
PostPosted: December 28th, 2011, 7:49 pm 
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International publications on LSE - full text available online in English


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PostPosted: January 3rd, 2012, 8:23 pm 
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Index

    1. The Situation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Germany: The need for an Action Plan and active Conservation. By Bernd-U. Meyburg, Torsten Langgemach, Kai Graszynski and Jörg Böhner

    2. Habitats used by Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) during migration and wintering as revealed by Satellite tracking and remote sensing. By Birgit Gerkmann, Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg

    3. Migration and Wintering of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina : A Study by Means of Satellite Telemetry* by Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller, and Christiane Meyburg

    4. The Lesser Spotted Eagle and its Conservation in Estonia by Ülo Väli

    5. Nest-site use by Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to fragmented forest cover: case study from Lithuania. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Saulis Skuj, Danas Augutis, Darius Stončius

    6. Changes in the abundance of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) breeding population in Lithuania in 1980–2006. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Eugenijus Drobelis, Bronius Ðablevièius, Vladas Naruđevièus, Antanas Petrađka

    7. Sex ratio of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina nestlings in good and poor breeding years. By Ülo Väli

    8. Lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina [European Species Action Plan for the lesser spotted eagle]

    9. Arthropods in the nests of lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina). By By Ján Krištofík, Peter Mašán, Zbyšek Šustek & Dušan Karaska

    10. Important Landscape Factors for the Breeding Territory Selection by Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). By Rimgaudas Treinys

    11. Productivity and diet of Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in Lithuania in 2001-2003. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Deivis Dementavièius

    12. On Cainism in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) and a possible Explanation for the Phenomenon in this and other Eagle Species. Bernd-U. Meyburg (2002)

    13. Home range size, habitat utilisation, Hunting and Time budgets of Lesser Spotted Eagles Aquila pomarina with regards to Disturbance and Landscape Fragmentation. Bernd-U. Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller and Ugis Bergmanis (2004)

    14. Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) in Europe – a review. By Dravecký M., Sellis U., Bergmanis U., Dombrovski V., Lontkowski J., Maciorowski G., Maderič B., Meyburg B.-U., Mizera T., Stój M., Treinys R. & Wójciak J. (2008)

    15. Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004–2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). By Meyburg B-U, Graszynski K, Langgemach T, Sömmer P & Bergmanis U (2008)

    16. Autumn migration of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in the Strait of Gibraltar: accidental or regular? By Onrubia A., Muñoz A.-R., Arroyo G.M., Ramírez J., de la Cruz A., Barrios L., Meyburg B.-U., Meyburg C. & Langgemach T. (2011)

    17. Satellite tracking of two Lesser Spotted Eagles, Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia. By Meyburg, B.-U., D.H. Ellis, C. Meyburg, J.M. Mendelsohn & W. Scheller (2001)

    18. Satellite-tracked Lesser Spotted Eagle avoids crossing water at the Gulf of Suez. By Meyburg, B.-U., J. Matthes & C. Meyburg (2002)

    19. Migration, wintering and breeding of a Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) from Slovakia tracked by Satellite. By Meyburg, B.-U., C. Meyburg, T. Belka, O. Sreibr & J. Vrana (2004)

    20. Why do female Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) visit strange nests remote from their own? Meyburg, B.-U., C. Meyburg, F. Franck-Neumann (2007)

    21. Annual cycle, timing and speed of migration of a pair of Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) – a study by means of satellite telemetry. By Meyburg, B.-U. & C. Meyburg (2009)

    22. Habitats used by Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) during migration and wintering as revealed by Satellite tracking and remote sensing. By Gerkmann, B. & B.-U. Meyburg (2009)

    23. The Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in the North Caucasus, Russian Federation: taxonomic status, genetic diversity, breeding density and nest site characteristics. By Ü. Väli; V.P. Belik; I. G. Babkin (2009)

    24. The effects of habitat quality and female size on the productivity of the lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina in the light of the alternative prey hypothesis. By A. Lohmus, Ü. Väli (2004)

    25. Sex ratio of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina nestlings in good and poor breeding years. By Ülo Väli (2004)

    26. Numbers and population dynamics of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Estonia. By Lõhmus, A.; Väli, Ü. (2001)

    27. Satellite Tracking of Raptors – How PTTs Changed Our Lives. By Bernd-U. Meyburg & Christiane Meyburg

    28. 8th Conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union 27–30 August 2011, Riga: Programme and Abstracts (2011)

    29. Studies of less familiar birds - Lesser Spotted Eagle. By B.-U. Meyburg (1973)

    30. Lesser Spotted Eagle by Bernd-U. Meyburg (Czechoslovakia & Germany) (2010)

    31. Age at first breeding, philopatry, longevity and causes of mortality in the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina by Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Tomas Belka, Stefan Danko, Janusz Wójciak, Günter Heise, Torsten Blohm und Hinrich Matthes (2005)

    32. European Union Species Action Plan for Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) 1997

    33. Predicted and observed migration speed in Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina. By Anders Hedenström (1997)

    34. Rescue of a Lesser Spotted Eagle Chick (2012)

    35. The Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Catalonia (Spain) - Breeding attempt and migration. Josep Bosch & Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg. 2012




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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - English (online available)
PostPosted: January 3rd, 2012, 8:24 pm 
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Index


    36. Colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina, Aquila clanga and their hybrids) in Europe – a review. Dravecký M, Sellis U, Bergmanis U, Dombrovski V, Lontkowski J, Maciorowski G, Maderič B, Meyburg B-U, Mizera T, Stój M, Treinys R & Wójciak J. 2008

    37. Diet of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia : Potrava orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina) na Slovensku. Dravecký M, Danko Š, Obuch J, Kicko J, Maderič B, Karaska D, Vrána J, Šreibr O, Šotnár K, Vrlík P. & Bohačík L. 2008

    38. A preliminary overview of monitoring for raptors in Estonia. Rein Nellis. 2013

    39. A preliminary overview of monitoring for raptors in Latvia. Jānis Reihmanis. 2013

    40. A preliminary overview of raptor monitoring in Georgia. Alexander Abuladze. 2013

    41. A preliminary overview of monitoring for raptors in Belarus. Valery Dombrovski. 2013

    42. A preliminary overview of of monitoring for raptors in France. Jean-Paul Urcun. 2013

    43. A preliminary national overview of monitoring for raptors in Poland. Janusz Sielicki & Tadeusz Mizera. 2013

    44. A preliminary overview of monitoring for raptors in the Slovak Republic. Miroslav Dravecký & Zuzana Guziová. 2013

    45. A preliminary overview of raptor monitoring in Slovenia – an overview of methodologies, current monitoring status and future perspectives. Al Vrezec. 2013

    46. Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina – their status and perspectives for monitoring development. Dražen Kotrošan & Ena Hatibović. 2013

    47. A preliminary overview of monitoring for raptors in Croatia. Vlatka Dumbović Mazal1, Krešimir Mikulić. 2013

    48. An overview of monitoring for raptors in Bulgaria. Svetoslav Spasov, Volen Arkumarev, Dobromir Dobrev & Vladimir Dobrev. 2013

    49. An overview of monitoring for raptors in Hungary. András Kovács, János Bagyura, Márton Horváth & Gergő Halmos. 2013

    50. Past and present nest-site requirements of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina C.L.Brehm) and their possible conflicts with timber harvesting. Rimgaudas Treinys, Gintautas Mozgeris. 2006

    51. Analysis of breeding habitats of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Latvia. Ugis Bergmanis. 2004

    52. Selection of nesting and foraging habitat by the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina (Brehm) in the Knyszyńska Forest (NE Poland). Paweł Mirski. 2009

    53. Using two methods in prey identification from pellets of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila Pomarina). Laima Balčiauskienė, Laima Baltrūnaitė, Rimgaudas Treinys. 2007

    54. Flight strategies of migrating raptors; a comparative study of interspecific variation in flight characteristics. (1997)

    55. The latest results of ringing the Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) in Slovakia. (2008/2012)

    56. Young of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) reared by lesser spotted eagles (Aquila pomarina) in natural conditions in Slovakia. (2013)

    57. The migration of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina, European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus, Levant Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes and White Stork Ciconia ciconia over Northern Israel – a balance over 30 years of counts. (2013)








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1. The Situation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Germany: The need for an Action Plan and active Conservation. By Bernd-U. Meyburg, Torsten Langgemach, Kai Graszynski and Jörg Böhner 2004

ABSTRACT
Since about 1800 the total breeding area of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Germany has shrunk by some 90 % from a then 83,000 km2 to a small residual area today of some 10,000km2. The western border of the breeding range has shifted several hundred kilometres eastwards. The reasons for this decline were a massive annihilation campaign of shooting and egg theft. Increasing habitat loss became a negative factor only in the course of the 20th century. At present the species breeds only in the federal Länder (States) Mecklenburg–West Pomerania, Brandenburg and Saxony–Anhalt in relatively small areas of 6,600, 3,600 and. 13km2 respectively. In 2001 the total population consisted of some 115 breeding pairs. Today the reasons for the continuing decline are principally habitat changes and hunting on migration routes. As long as the causes of the present population limitation persist, and protection measures are not intensified, the negative trend in Germany will continue, in the worst case until the species becomes extinct. An action plan to rescue the species is therefore urgently required. The protection measures determined must also be implemented rapidly in order to prevent a further population decline and, if possible, promote an increase.

Source: http://www.raptor-research.de/main.html
PDF available here: http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp707.pdf


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2. Habitats used by Lesser Spotted Eagles (Aquila pomarina) during migration and wintering as revealed by Satellite tracking and remote sensing. By Birgit Gerkmann, Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg

Text in English:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp151_PGE-06-087-102-Gerkmann&Meyburg-Schreiadler.pdf

Summary in German:
http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_sp100s/a_sp151_summary.pdf

Source: Populationsökologie Greifvogel- und Eulenarten • Bd. 6 • 2009: 87–102 (Summary)
PDF available at: http://www.raptor-research.de/a_sp100.html


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PostPosted: February 26th, 2012, 7:32 pm 
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3. Migration and Wintering of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina : A Study by Means of Satellite Telemetry* by Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller, and Christiane Meyburg

(* This text is a slightly shortened version of a paper which was originally published in German in Journal für Ornithologie Vol. 136, pp. 401-422)

Abstract:
An account is given of the satellite tracking of the movements of four adult and three juvenile individuals. For the first time a migratory bird was successfully tracked all the way from its breeding grounds in Europe to its wintering quarters in southern Africa and back to Europe. Its outward and return migrations both took about 71/2 weeks. Both routes were practically identical, with the bird covering a total distance of 19,400 km, including its movements in its winter quarters in Zambia. On average 166 km were covered per day during migration. Its wintering quarters, where the bird stayed from the end of October until the end of February, extended over an area of ca. 25,000 km2. The autumn migration of all individuals within Africa followed a relatively narrow corridor between longitudes 31° and 36° E from Suez south to Lake Tanganyika from where the birds dispersed. The greatest migration speed was reached by a young bird on the stage from Turkey to the Sudan, flying an average of 289 km per day.

Key words : Aquila pomarina, Lesser Spotted Eagle, Migration, Satellite telemetry, Wintering

Text in English:
http://www.dr-meyburg.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp120.pdf
PDF of an article: Global Environment Research, 4 (2000) 2: 183-193


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4. The Lesser Spotted Eagle and its Conservation in Estonia by Ülo Väli

Abstract:
This publication is based on the management plan for the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in 2003–2012. This bird is one of the most numerous eagles in Europe but still classified as a species of conservation concern. 500–600 pairs of Lesser Spotted Eagles breed in Estonia. The nest sites are situated mostly in old spruce-dominated stands, close to forest edge. The eagle prefers to hunt on meadows but flood plains and fields are used, too. Food consists mainly on small mammals while voles are the most important prey group. Reproductive success fluctuates annually. In 1981–2002, the average productivity was 0.62 fledged young per occupied nest.

PDF available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238621719_The_Lesser_Spotted_Eagle_and_its_conservation_in_Estonia

Published in: Hirundo Supplementum 6 (2003)


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5. Nest-site use by Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to fragmented forest cover: case study from Lithuania. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Saulis Skuj, Danas Augutis, Darius Stončius

Abstract:
Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle are forest-dwelling species that nest in mature forests, thus are in conflict with the timber harvesting. No recent research has evaluated the demand for continuous forest cover around nest-trees of these species. This article analyses nest-site use by Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to ground cover, specifically comparing the nest-tree environment with availabilities in the forest landscape. Strong avoidance of field, low avoidance of shrubland (clearcuts and forests up to 30 years of age) and preference of continuous forest cover (older than 30 years of age) are characteristic of the Black Stork nest-site use. Nest-sites of Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to ground cover did not differ from availabilities in the forest landscape, except in the environment nearest to the nest-trees, where eagles preferred continuous forest cover and weakly avoided shrubland. We assume that the relatively low avoidance of shrubland by both species could be related with the present level of forest landscape fragmentation, ongoing adaptation to the fragmented forests, or the importance of a suitable nest-tree with only the immediate surrounding to provide protective cover. Some implications for conservation are discussed.
Key words: Ciconia nigra, Aquila pomarina, nest-site, preference, forest fragmentation

PDF available here: http://www.ebiblioteka.lt/resursai/LMA/Ekologija/Eko81/182-188.pdf


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6. Changes in the abundance of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) breeding population in Lithuania in 1980–2006. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Eugenijus Drobelis, Bronius Ðablevièius, Vladas Naruđevièus, Antanas Petrađka

Abstract:
In the mid-20 century, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) was considered to be one of the most abundant species among the birds of prey in the forests of Lithuania. The estimates of the national population changed from 300.500 to 1,500.1,800 pairs in 1994 and 2005, respectively. Changes in the population estimates did not reflect the actual population trend, but rather the level of investigation of the species in the country. In reality, the current status of the species. population is unknown due to the lack of regular, nationwide monitoring. The aim of this work was to estimate the status of the Lesser Spotted Eagle population in Lithuania. Field studies in 10 sample plots in various regions of Lithuania during the period 2003.2006 showed that the number of breeding pairs declined by 31% on average as compared to the period 1980.1998. We suggest that the population of Lesser Spotted Eagle decreased by 26% across the country during the period 1980.2006. Possible reasons of such decline are discussed in this study.

PDF available at: http://vddb.laba.lt/fedora/get/LT-eLABa-0001:J.04~2007~ISSN_1392-1657.V_17.N_1.PG_64-69/DS.002.1.01.ARTIC

Published in: Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2007, Volumen 17, Numerus 1 (ISSN 1392-1657)


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7. Sex ratio of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina nestlings in good and poor breeding years. By Ülo Väli

Abstract:
The ratio was female-biased in good years and male-biased in poor years, but did not differ from parity in the long term.

PDF available at:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00063650409461352

Published in: Bird Study (2004) 51, 189–191


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8. Lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina [European Species Action Plan for the lesser spotted eagle]

Background
The European Species Action Plan for the lesser spotted eagle (Meyburg et al. 1997) was adopted in 1997 by the Ornis Committee and in 1999 by the Bern Convention. The species’ breeding distribution is restricted to Eastern and Central Europe, and the plan requires active implementation in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Montenegro, Macedonia FYR, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Syria, Turkey and Ukraine. As a long-distance migrant wintering in Southern Africa, the species is subject of the CMS Memorandum of Understanding of Birds of Prey. The plan has not been revised and its implementation has not been reviewed since adoption. No information was proved by Albania or Russia.

PDF available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/wildbirds/action_plans/docs/aquila_pomarina.pdf


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9. Arthropods in the nests of lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina). By Ján Krištofík, Peter Mašán, Zbyšek Šustek & Dušan Karaska

Abstract:
In 2001–2007, altogether 57 nests of lesser spotted eagle were collected in the Orava region in northwestern
Slovakia and four groups of arthropods were extracted from them. Richest in number of species and individuals were mites
(23 species, 17,500 ind.), followed by beetles (12 species, 725 ind.), whereas pseudoscorpions were represented only by
Pselaphochernes scorpioides (39 ind.) and fleas by Ceratophyllus garei (3 ind.). Unlike nests of other birds, free-living mites
predominated in the nests fauna (83% of individuals), followed by nidicolous species with more or less free relationship to
the nests, while parasitic species represented only a negligible part of the fauna. For the first time we observed phoresy of
Nenteria pandioni, a specific and abundant mite in the eagles’ nests, on the nidicolous staphylinid Haploglossa puncticollis.
The beetle fauna in the nests was much poorer than in nests of other birds. The predatory H. puncticollis was dominant in
the nests (83%) and occurred continuously during the whole investigation period. Other beetles, even the widely distributed
nidicols such as the histerid Gnathoncus buyssoni, were found rarely in nests. Predators were also the only abundant trophic
group of beetles in the nests, while other trophic groups of beetles abundantly co-occur in nests of majority of other birds.
The occurrence of all beetles was very unevenly distributed during the investigation period, but was positively correlated
with occurrence of mites. The relatively low number of species and individuals of mites and beetles in the lesser spotted
eagle nests resulted from their position on tree tops, at a height of 20–30 m and their quick drying out by sun and wind.
It was also indicated by an enormously low number of species and individuals of mycetophagous beetles, which represent a
significant component of the fauna in nests of other birds.

Key words: lesser spotted eagle; pseudoscorpions; mites; beetles; fleas; Slovakia

PDF available at:
http://zoo.sav.sk/data/people_publictions_1013_2009-Kristofik._Sustek-Aquila-pomarina-nests-arthropods-beetles.pdf

Published in: Biologia 64/5: 974—980, 2009 Section Zoology


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10. Important Landscape Factors for the Breeding Territory Selection by Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). By Rimgaudas Treinys

Abstract.
In Lithuania, only nest sites of Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) are protected, in spite of the fact that this species requires a large complex landscape for breeding. In addition, until now little attention has been paid to the research of this species habitat requirements at a landscape level, in contrast to the study of nest-site requirements at a stand level. In our research, 55 Lesser Spotted Eagle territories (2 km radius around the nest) were compared with 54 random territories. Lesser Spotted Eagle territories differed from random territories significantly in seven landscape variables of 19. Results suggest that Lesser Spotted Eagle habitat selection at a landscape level is related to a great amount of optimal feeding habitats and human avoidance. Therefore, with regard to species conservation not only nest sites, but also a broader landscape perspective should be taken into account.
Key words: Aquila pomarina, landscape, preference, avoidance

PDF available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/241734226_Important_Landscape_Factor_for_the_Breeding_Territory_Selection_by_Lesser_Spotted_Eagle_%28Aquila_Pomarina%29

Published in: Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2004, Volumen 14, Numerus 1 (ISSN 1648-6919)


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11. Productivity and diet of Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in Lithuania in 2001-2003. By Rimgaudas Treinys, Deivis Dementavièius

Abstract:
In 2001–2003, the data on the productivity and diet of Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) were collected in Central, Northern and Eastern parts of Lithuania. Though during the mentioned period productivity varied greatly, mean productivity of 0.61 was very similar to that more than 10 years ago. During the study period successful breeders made up 59%; 3% of all successful breeding attempts resulted in two nestlings. The productivity correlated with the share of small rodents in the diet. With a decrease of the diet share of small rodents, the diet share of amphibians increased. Therefore we assume that Lesser Spotted Eagle in the study area behaves partly according to the alternative prey hypothesis. It is also likely that during the last decade small rodents became predominant in the diet of eagles, whereas the role of other kind of prey became less significant. Extensive agriculture can be one of the possible reasons for this. We also suggest that changes in agriculture during the last decade did not have direct influence on mean productivity. Due to the lack of data we are not able to judge about changes in population abundance.
Key words: Aquila pomarina, productivity, diet change


PDF available at: http://www.avibirds.com/pdf/S/Schreeuwarend1.pdf

Published in: Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2004, Volumen 14, Numerus 2 (ISSN 1392-1657)


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12. On Cainism in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) and a possible Explanation for the Phenomenon in this and other Eagle Species. Bernd-U. Meyburg (2002)

Full text available:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp705.pdf

Published in:
Yosef, R., M.L. Miller & D. Pepler (eds.): Raptors in the New Millennium. Eilat: Intern. Birding & Research Center, p. 53-61

ABSTRACT

Detailed observations were made of Cainism (fatal Cain-and-Abel struggle) in a Lesser Spotted Eagle's (LSE; Aquila pomarina) nest in Slovakia from a hide in which the second chick could be closely observed from hatching to death. At a second eyrie in Germany a remotecontrolled video camera was used to record on tape the events leading up to the death of the second chick. In a third case in which the strife between the siblings was studied, both chicks had clearly passed the age at which the second chick has usually perished. Here observations were conducted for several days from a blind.


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 Post subject: Re: LSE Full Text Documents - English (online available)
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 4:22 pm 
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13. Home range size, habitat utilisation, Hunting and Time budgets of Lesser Spotted Eagles Aquila pomarina with regards to Disturbance and Landscape Fragmentation. Bernd-U. Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller and Ugis Bergmanis (2004)

Full text available:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp708.pdf

Published in: Raptors Worldwide. Budapest: WWGBP & MME. P. 515-635

ABSTRACT

The extent of the home range, habitat utilization and time budget of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (LSE) were examined with particular regard to disturbance and landscape fragmentation in North-eastern Germany at the western edge of its range and, for comparison purposes, in Latvia. The results, based on conventional VHF radio-telemetry backed up by visual observation, produced valuable data on home range coverage (which was significantly greater than recorded in earlier studies) and the characteristics and utilization of preferred hunting grounds.

A total of 9 birds in Germany, and 6 birds in Latvia, were studied. The home ranges exploited by successful breeding males in Germany were significantly larger than those in Latvia, averaging 2,711.2 ha compared with a 1,142.7 ha. The maximum/minimum ranges covered in Germany were 3,393.8 ha/2,218.5 ha compared with 1,552 ha/672 ha in Latvia. There was no marked difference between the average daily home range of 347.3 ha and 483.8 ha in Germany (mean 471.9 ha) and between 244.3 ha and 489.3 ha (mean 361.2 ha) in Latvia. There was little difference in the maximum daily home range size in Germany 1,287.5 ha and in Latvia 1,156.0 ha.

All eagles used open countryside considerably more than forested areas for hunting. All of the Latvian and most of the German males showed a clear preference for grassland as hunting habitat. In Latvia grassland, where the availability in the home range was correspondingly greater, was used morefrequently and for longer periods (39%) of total hunting time (24.5% Germany). The proportion was reversed in hunting over arable land because of the smaller percentage of grassland in Germany where cereal crops or set-asides were preferred for hunting in the vegetation period; hunting over rape and maize crops began generally after the harvest. There was a difference in the proportion of individual hunting methods. Perch hunting dominated among the Latvian birds, the German birds mainly hunted on the wing.

Wide-open and unbroken countryside must be preserved in breeding area concentrations, with potential disturbance factors confined to marginal zones. All forms of infrastructural development (particularly road construction) must be strictly controlled here.

The following disturbance factors must be excluded from an area up to 3 km radius from the nest, the main hunting zone: tourism, all substantial urban development and installations involving substantial habitat change (e.g. wind turbines).


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