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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:42 pm 
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Documents available in Full text - English

International publications on GSE and hybridization - full text available online in English


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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:43 pm 
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Index

1. Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe - Full text available online

2. Numbers and hybridization of spotted eagles in Estonia as revealed by country-wide field observations and genetic analysis - Full text available online

3. The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga): Previous, Current Status and hybridisation in Lithuania - Full text available online

4. Interbreeding of the Greater Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina - Full text available online

5. Post-fledging behavior and outward migration of a hybrid Greater Spotted x Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga x A. pomarina) - Full text available online

6. Nestling characteristics and identification of the lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina, greater spotted eagle A. clanga, and their hybrids - Full text available online

7. On the Biology of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga Pallas 1811) - Full text available online

8. Genetic differentiation and hybridization between Greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquila clanga, A. pomarina) - Full text available online

9. Current scientific research for supporting the protection of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Biebrza valley - Full text available online

10. Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms in avian hybrid identification: a comparative case study - Full text available online

11. Migrations of an adult Spotted Eagle tracked by satellite - Full text available online

12. Greater Spotted Eagle wintering in Zambia - Full text available online

13. Tracking the Endangered Greater Spotted Eagle - Full text available online

14. Post-fledging behavior and outward migration of a hybrid Greater x Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga x A. pomarina) - Full text available online

15. Cainism in the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila Clanga - Full text available online

16. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone - Full text available online

17. Eesti kotkaste seire – näiteid haruldaste liikide staatuse ja arvukuse määramisest = Monitoring Estonian eagles: examples of following status and abundance of rare species - Full text in Estonian language available online

18. Successful breeding of a ten-year-old hybrid spotted eagle Aquila clanga x A. pomarina retaining immature plumage characters - Full text available online

19. Die Bestimmung von Schell- Schrei- und Steppenadler - Full text in German available online

20. Mystery bird: Greater spotted eagle, Aquila clanga - Full text available online

21. Zjawisko hybrydyzacji zagrożeniem dla europejskiej populacji orlika grubodziobego Aquila clanga - Full text in Polish available online

22. Habitat use by the Vulnerable greater spotted eagle Aquila clanga interbreeding with the lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina in Estonia - Abstract available online

23. The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina: taxonomy, phylogeography and ecology - Abstract available online

24. Genetic structure of Greater Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina populations: implications for phylogeography and conservation - Full text available online

25. Parental care, nestling growth and diet in a Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga nest - Full text available online

26. Mitochondrial pseudo-control region in old world eagles (genus Aquila) - Full text available online

27. Schelladler Aquila clanga brütet in partiellem Jugendgefieder - PDF made available

28. Identification of juvenile Greater Spotted Eagle, Lesser Spotted Eagle and hybrids - Full text available online

29. European Species Action Plan for Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) - Full text available online

30. Lančiūnavos miško biosferos poligone įsikūrė Didysis erelis rėksnys Full text in Lithuanian language available online


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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:46 pm 
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Index

31. Altai Logging Destroys Eagle Nesting Grounds - Newspaper article

32. New Delhi: Govt embarks on project to save winged residents - Newspaper article

33. Adler im Anflug - Article in a journal

34. The diet of the greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga) in Belarusian Polesie - Full text available online

35. Problems of Protection of Forest Habitats of Rare Species in Regional Reserves of the Altai Kray are Resolving - Article in a journal

36. Programme on the Colour Ringing of Raptors of the Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network (RRRCN): Results of 2012 and Prospects - Article in a journal

NB: Aquila clanga are mentioned in several more articles in this particular issue of Raptors Conservation: http://issuu.com/raptors_conservation/docs/rc25 Thanks to maertha for the hint

37. Occurrence of satellite-tracked Greater Spotted Eagles Aquila clanga from Estonia in the Sava River Valley - No full text available online

38. Lack of between- and within-species isoenzyme variability in Aquila eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) - No full text available online

39. The Greater Spotted Eagle in Estonia: Numbers, Distribution, Reproductive Success, Diet and Conservation - "in press"

40. Hybridization: a threat to the European Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga population - Chapter in a book

41. The Greater Spotted Eagle and its conservation in Estonia - No full text available online

42. Greater Spotted Eagle in the Volga-Ural region, Western Siberia and Altai-Sayan region - Full text available online

43. Greater Spotted Eagle in the Volga-Ural region and Western Siberia - Full text available online

44. Greater Spotted Eagles Aquila clanga in central Thailand - Full text available online

45. Wintering of Greater Spotted Aquila clanga and Eastern Imperial Eagles A. heliaca in the Arabian Peninsula - No full text available online

46. The satellite tracking of a rehabilitated Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila Clanga) - Full text available online

47. The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in Belarusian Polesie - No full text available online

48. The Greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles in Darwin Nature Reserve - No full text available online

49. Status of Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca and Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran - Full text available online

50. Greater Spotted Eagle, Grasshopper Warbler and Broad-tailed Grassbird near Pune, Maharashtra, India - Full text available online

51. Aquila eagles in Kerala, India - Full text available online

52. The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) breeding in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur - No full text available online

53. Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata Linnaeus – two rare records from Kerala - No full text available online

54. Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) - Chapter in a book

55. Family break up, departure, and autumn migration in Europe of a family of Greater Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga) as reported by satelllite telemetry - Full text available online

56. Registration of the Great Spotted Eagle in the northeast of Kazakhstan - Full text available online

57. Hybridization of Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Belarus: taxonomic consequences - No full text available online

58. Schelladler, Aquila clanga ... im nordwestlichen Sachsen. 1953 - No full text available online

59. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle: Proceedings of the International Workshop Goniądz, Poland 25-27th January 2012 - Full text available online

60. Habitat alteration enables hybridisation between Lesser Spotted and Greater Spotted Eagles in north-east Poland. 2012 - - No full text available online


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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:47 pm 
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Index

61. Orliki i antenki, czyli o telemetrii orlików grubodziobych. (2012) - Full text available online

62. Zur Biologie des Schelladlers Aquila clanga. (2001) - Articles in a Journal/Magazine

63. Satellite tracking of a rehabilitated Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga. (2011) - Full text available online

64. Suur-konnakotka Aquila clanga kaitse tegevuskava aastateks 2006–2010 - Full text available online

65. Suur- ja väike-konnakotka (Aquila clanga et A. pomarina, Acciptriformes: Accipitridae) ristumine ja selle uurimine molekulaarsete markerite abil. (2006) - Full text available online

66. Water regime as a key factor preventing hybridization in the endangered Greater Spotted Eagle. ? - Full text available online


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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:47 pm 
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 Post subject: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 10:48 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 11:01 pm 
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1. Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe

"Hybridization is a significant threat for endangered species and could potentially even lead to their extinction. This concern applies to the globally vulnerable Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, a species that co-occurs, and potentially interbreeds, with the more common Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in a vast area of Eastern Europe."

Ülo Väli, Valery Dombrovski, Rimgaudas Treiny, Ugis Bergmanis, Szilárd J. Darócz, Miroslav Dravecky, Vladimir Ivanovsk, Jan Lontkowski, Grzegorz Maciorowski, Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Tadeusz Mizera, Róbert Zeitz and Hans Ellegren


Received 6 November 2009; revised 15 February 2010; accepted for publication 15 February 2010

Additional Keywords: avian hybridization – extinction – hybrid identification – introgression – microsatellites – raptor – single nucleotide polymorphism – spotted eagles

Available online at the website of Raptor Research:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp800p/a_rp804_Widespread_hybridization.pdf

Published in: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 100. 2010, p. 725 - 736


Submitted by Urmas Sellis


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 4th, 2012, 11:20 pm 
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2. Numbers and hybridization of spotted eagles in Estonia as revealed by country-wide field observations and genetic analysis

"Spotted eagles include two medium-sized similar raptors breeding sympatrically in Estonia. In the current study I checked if population numbers derived from country-wide field observations over a 20-year period were in line with the estimate extrapolated from surveys in study plots (500–-600 breeding territories of the Lesser Spotted Eagle and 10-–30 territories of the Greater Spotted Eagle) ..."

Ülo Väli
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
Riia 181, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; ulo.vali@emu.ee and Kotkaklubi, Valgjärve vald, Põlvamaa, Estonia

Received 20 December 2010, revised 8 March 2011, accepted 16 March 2011

Keywords: Aquila clanga, Aquila pomarina, census, genetic analysis, hybrid, population size, raptor

Available online here:
http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2011/issue_2/ecol-2011-2-143-154.pdf

Submitted by Urmas Sellis


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 6th, 2012, 1:43 pm 
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3. The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga): Previous, Current Status and hybridisation in Lithuania

"The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) is a globally threatened species. It is included into the Lithuanian Red Data Book as extinct or probably extinct. During fieldwork in 2000-–2004 four nonterritorial Greater Spotted Eagles were observed. 261 spotted eagles were described in 161 breeding territories (about 15% of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) national population)). 2.7% of birds were identified as Greater Spotted Eagles in 3.7% of the studied territories ..."

Rimgaudas Treinys

Received: 12 November 2004 Accepted: 17 March 2005

Key words: Aquila clanga, Aquila pomarina, mixed pairs, hybridisation, numbers

Available online here:
http://www.avibirds.com/pdf/B/Bastaardarend2.pdf


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: January 6th, 2012, 3:41 pm 
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4. Interbreeding of the Greater Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina

"In east-central Estonia three probably interbreeding pairs of A. clanga and pomarina were found in 1988-97; in central Estonia one possibly ,,mixed“ pair in 1997. Twice the female showed characteristics of A. clanga and the male of A. pomarina, once vice versa. The hybrid nestlings had controversial characteristics. The nests were situated closer to wetlands than those of A. pomarina. Interbreeding has been also reported elsewhere in the species’ overlap area. Probably the interbreeding pairs are formed in the territories of single site-tenacious A. clanga. In 1988-1997 altogether nine pairs which included at least one adult A. clanga have been studied in Estonia. Of these four had mated with A. pomarina. We suspect that taxonomically A. clanga and A. pomarina should be treated as semispecies. Some identification problems are briefly discussed."

Asko Lõhmus and Ülo Väli

Key words: Aquila clanga, Aquila pomarina, interbreeding, identification, taxonomy, habitat use

Published in: Acta ornithoecologica 4.2-4 (2001) 377-384
Available online here:
https://www.etis.ee/ShowFile.aspx?FileVID=52741


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: March 4th, 2012, 5:55 pm 
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5. Post-fledging behavior and outward migration of a hybrid Greater Spotted x Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga x A. pomarina)

The palearctic Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (A. pomarina) are sister species that, as mtDNA studies have estimated, diverged approximately one million years ago (Seibold et al. 1996). The world population of the Greater Spotted Eagle consists of some few thousand pairs distributed sparsely over a vast area from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean (Meyburg et al. 2001a). The approximately twenty thousand pairs of the Lesser Spotted Eagle breed mainly in Central and Eastern Europe (Meyburg et al. 2001b). The ranges of the two species overlap in Eastern Europe, and the sympatric area covers a large proportion of the Greater Spotted Eagle’s distribution range in Europe. Hybridization has recently been described in all countries in the sympatric area except Russia: Estonia (Lõhmus and Väli 2001), Latvia (Bergmanis et al. 2001), Lithuania (Treinys 2005), Poland (Meyburg et al. 2005c), Belarus (Dombrovski2005) and Ukraine (Zhezherin 1969).

Bernd-U. Meyburg and Christiane Meyburg

Key words: Greater Spotted Eagle; Aquila clanga; Lesser Spotted Eagle ; Aquila pomarina; hybrid ; migration; satellite
telemetry

Published in: J. Raptor Res. 41(2):165–170
Available online here:
http://www.b-u-meyburg.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp134.pdf


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: March 4th, 2012, 6:28 pm 
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6. Nestling characteristics and identification of the lesser spotted eagleAquila pomarina, greater spotted eagle A. clanga, and their hybrids. By Ülo Väli and Asko Lõhmus

Abstract:
The lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina and the greater spotted eagle A. clanga are closely related endangered raptors whose taxonomic status, field identification, and ultimately conservation, have been complicated due to morphological similarity. However, the partial overlap in morphological features may also involve hybrids, which are known to exist, but which have so far been poorly described. This study investigated spotted eagle nestlings in Estonia, pre-identifying them according to mitochondrial DNA, nape patch and the appearance of their parents. Relative size of bill and toes (corrected for nestling growth) enabled us to separate the smaller A. pomarina, but hybrids were as large as A. clanga. All three groups had distinct plumages with hybrids being intermediate; the separation was clearest using both size and plumage indices. In all, 164 of 168 birds were correctly identified using a three-step procedure, separating: (1) A. clanga, having no nape patch; (2) 9 of 13 hybrids according to plumage index; and (3) the remaining hybrids by their large size (at least two features over the mean+2 SD values of A. pomarina). Knowing the sex helped to interpret size, but not plumage, characteristics, and its overall value for
assisting identification was not high. The results support the view that spotted eagles with intermediate characters are usually hybrids which can be recognised by their appearance.

Ülo Väli and Asko Lõhmus

Keywords Aquila clanga, Aquila pomarina, Field identification, Hybridisation, Morphology

Published in: J Ornithol (2004) 145: 256–263
PDF available online here:
https://www.etis.ee/ShowFile.aspx?FileVID=23648


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 3:45 pm 
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7. On the Biology of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga Pallas 1811). By Bernhard Komischke, Kai Graszynski und Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg


German abstract available online:
http://www.raptor-research.de/summary/a_rp700s/a_rp703.html

Published here: Acta ornithoecologica 4: 337-376 (2001)

Full text available in English:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp706.pdf

ABSTRACT

A study of Greater Spotted Eagles (GSE)(Aquila clanga), was carried out by direct observation from 20 April to 19 August 1997 in the Biebrza National Park in north-east Poland. This study provided information on home range, flight behavior, hunting methods, hunting territory, prey composition, and interaction with other species. Behavior was recorded at 5 min intervals, and was plotted on map quadrants 200 x 200 m in size. Observations were carried out daily from 0800 to 1800 H. Since the first pair (M1 and F1) selected for study did not attempt to breed, attention was shifted to a second pair (M2 and F2), whose young fledged on 16 August. Sexes were determined at copulation and, thereafter, by moulting pattems. Both males (M1 and M2) hunted chiefly on the wing (soaring in search of prey and stooping to the ground) and were regularly observable (40% of the time). Females (F1 and F2) were seldom observed hunting. Flight activity lasted between 0.5 and 7.5 H/day, largely between 0900 and 1700 H, with a peak between 1000 and 1400 H. Accordingly, the major proportion of prey was also recorded between these hours. Between 1400 and 1500 H, there was usually a period of repose. The start of hunting by F2 (on 12 July when the eaglet was about 3-4 weeks old) led to a clear decline in M2's flying activity. The territorial flights of M2 (undulating display flights), however, increased. The breeding and hunting territories marked out were defended against members of the same species, the closely related Lesser Spotted Eagle (LSE) (Aquila pomarina) and other large birds of prey. Male GSEs in the Biebrza valley probably have clearly defined territories that they defend. Up to mid-July the male's hunting success was 34%. The success of hunting on the wing declined to below 20% during the day. Since prey continued to be carried to the eyrie, this clearly indicated a strategic change in favor of still-hunting or hunting on foot. For the most part, M2 arrived with mice (65%, likely Microtus), and frogs (19%, Rana spp.) at the eyrie. F2, so far as it could be observed, showed a preference for frogs. Based on the estimated weight of the observed dietary needs, as compared with the presumed needs of the young eagle based on the literature, an attempt was made to determine the completeness of observations of arrivals with prey at the nest for the total observation period. This led to the conclusion that 2/3 of the arrivals with prey was likely observed. The two pairs (1 and 2) of GSE defended home ranges of 15 km2 and 19 km2, respectively. These values correspond to those given in the literature. However, studies of LSEs by conventional telemetry have revealed clearly larger home ranges than those assessed from direct observation. The breeding territories of GSEs in Biebrza valley displayed a variety in landscape structure. There were clearly defined areas for hunting, for conflicts with other large birds of prey, and areas where undulating display flights were performed. The hunting grounds of M2 clearly shifted after 12 July. This could have resulted from avoidance of increased in human activity in the meadows 62 of the old hunting territory, which had been mown by this date; as well, large numbers of other raptors and White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) in search of prey began to appear after this date. In this, GSEs studied clearly differed from the closely related LSE. We recognized a "contact call", a "territorial call" connected with the undulating display flights and a special, quite distinct "waming call" or "alarm call" which was audible when other large birds of prey were around.

The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) is one of 24 European bird species regarded as globally vulnerable (Collar et al. 1994). Formerly common in several east European countries, less than 1 000 pairs may have survived in these areas, mainly in the European part of Russia; the global breeding population has been estimated at less than 2500 pairs (Tucker and Heath 1994, Meyburg et al. 1997). This unfortunate situation is even more serious since our knowledge of the biology and ecological requirements of this species is quite limited, severely hindering protection activities. In the westem part of its range, it occurs with the Lesser Spotted Eagle, (A. pomarina), a species considered so similar, that together they were fonnerly considered as a single species or semi-species (Zhezherin 1969, Meyburg 1974, Meyburg 1994, Bergmanis 1996, Seibold et al. 1996). Up to now, little remains known of the differences between the ecological requirements of both species.

There is no explanation as to why the breeding range of the Greater Spotted Eagle (GSE) is limited westwards by eastern Poland although the similar-looking Lesser Spotted Eagle (LSE) occurs further to the west as far as east Germany. On the other hand, the breeding area of the LSE is restricted in the east by an indistinct (or inadequately known) border situated near Moscow although the area of its sister species stretches far to the east through Siberia extending to the Pacific Ocean (Meyburg 1994).

We tried to contribute to the solution of these questions by direct long-time observation of two pairs of GSE nesting in Biebrza National Park in eastern Poland.


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 4:37 pm 
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8. Genetic differentiation and hybridization between Greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquila clanga, A. pomarina). By Andreas J. Helbig, Ingrid Seibold, Annett Kocum, Dorit Liebers, Jessica Irwin, Ugis Bergmanis, Bernd U. Meyburg, Wolfgang Scheller, Michael Stubbe, Staffan Bensch

Full text available here:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp700p/a_rp710.pdf
Published in: Journal für Ornithologie (2005) 146: 226–234

Keywords
Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Haldane’s rule, Hybridization, Hypervariable control region 1, Mitochondrial
introgression

Summary

Genetic differentiation and hybridization between Greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquila clanga, A. pomarina)

Abstract Greater and lesser spotted eagles (Aquila clanga, A. pomarina) are two closely related forest eagles overlapping in breeding range in east-central Europe. In recent years a number of mixed pairs have been observed, some of which fledged hybrid young. Here we use mitochondrial (control region) DNA sequences and AFLP markers to estimate genetic differentiation and possible gene flow between these species. In a sample of 83 individuals (61 pomarina, 20 clanga, 2 F1-hybrids) we found 30 mitochondrial haplotypes which, in a phylogenetic network, formed two distinct clusters differing on average by 3.0% sequence divergence. The two species were significantly differentiated both at the mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP) genetic level. However, five individuals with pomarina phenotype possessed clanga-type mtDNA, suggesting occasional gene flow. Surprisingly, AFLP markers indicated that these "mismatched" birds (originating from Germany, E Poland and Latvia) were genetically intermediate between the samples of individuals in which mtDNA haplotype and phenotype agreed. This indicates that mismatched birds were either F1 or recent back-cross hybrids. Mitochondrial introgression was asymmetrical (no pomarina haplotype found in clanga so far), which may be due to assortative mating by size. Gene flow of nuclear markers was estimated to be about ten times stronger than for mtDNA, indicating a sex-bias in hybrid fertility in accordance with Haldane´s rule. Hybridization between the two species may be more frequent and may occur much further west than hitherto assumed. This is supported by the recent discovery of a mixed pair producing at least one fledgling in NE Germany.


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9. Current scientific research for supporting the protection of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Biebrza valley. By Maciorowski, G., B.-U. Meyburg, T. Mizera & J.Matthes (2009)

Full text in Polish available here:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp800p/a_rp803_Maciorowski,Meyburg,Mizera,Matthes2009_Clanga.pdf
Published in: Proceedings of the Center for Nature and Forestry Education 2 (21): 68-74.


Keywords: The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, The Eagle Conservation Committee, Biebrza

Abstract in English:

The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, is the rarest and least understood eagle found in Europe. The predominant reason for the decline of this single species is a loss of suitable hunting habitats, for example the loss or damage caused to peat bogs as they are drained, resulting in a rapid decline of this biotope. Further decline of the population has occurred due to hybridisation between this species and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina, which is able to adapt colonising this modified biotope. The Biebrza Valley is presently hosts the only Polish population of the Greater Spotted Eagle, and since 1992, a Polish-German group of ornithologists has been conducting telemetric research in order to establish baseline data, which will aid in the protection of the species. The Eagle Conservation Committee, in association with the Biebrza National Park and the Rajgród Forestry Commission, has created 48 zones of protection surrounding all Eagle nesting sites. In addition within the National Park, 90 artificial nesting platforms have been created, and the process of scrub clearance and grassland management of the feeding ground has begun. Initial first steps have also been taken to raise the water levels within the valley itself.


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10. Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms in avian hybrid identification: a comparative case study. By Ülo Väli, Pauli Saag, Valery Dombrovski, Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Grzegorz Maciorowski, Tadeusz Mizera, Rimgaudas Treinys and Sofie Fagerberg (2010)

Full text available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_rp800p/a_rp805_Vaeli_2010JAB.pdf
Published in: Journal Avian Biology 41: 34-49


Summary:

The correct identification of hybrids is essential in avian hybridisation studies, but selection of the appropriate set of genetic markers for this purpose is at times complicated. Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are currently the most commonly used markers in this field. We compare the efficiency of these two marker types, and their combination, in the identification of the threatened avian species, the greater spotted eagle and the lesser spotted eagle, as well as hybrids between the two species. We developed novel SNP markers from genome-wide distributed 122 candidate introns using only sympatric samples, and tested these markers successfully in 60 sympatric and allopatric spotted eagles using Bayesian model-based approaches. Comparatively, only one out of twelve previously described avian nuclear intron markers showed significant species-specific allele frequency difference, thus stressing the importance of selecting the proper markers. Twenty microsatellites outperformed selected nine SNPs in species identification, but were poorer in hybrid detection, whereas the resolution power of ten microsatellites remained too low for correct assignment. A combination of SNPs and microsatellites resulted in the most efficient and accurate identification of all individuals. Our study shows that the use of various sets of markers could lead to strikingly different assignment results, hybridisation studies may have been affected by too low a resolution power of used markers, and that an appropriate set of markers is essential for successful hybrid identification.


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 5:36 pm 
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11. Migrations of an adult Spotted Eagle tracked by satellite. By Meyburg, B.-U., Eichaker, X., Meyburg, C. & Paillat, P. (1995)

Full text available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp105.pdf
Published in: British Birds 88: 357-361


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 5:43 pm 
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12. Greater Spotted Eagle wintering in Zambia. By Meyburg, B.-U. , C. Meyburg, T. Mizera, G.Maciorowski & J. Kowalski (1998)

Full text available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp115.pdf
Published in: Africa - Birds & Birding 3: 62-68


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 6:10 pm 
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13. Tracking the Endangered Greater Spotted Eagle. By Meyburg, B.-U. & C. Meyburg (2005)

Full text available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp128.pdf
Published in: Tracker News 6 (2): 4


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 Post subject: Re: Greater Spotted Eagles and Hybrids
PostPosted: April 1st, 2012, 6:28 pm 
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14. Post-fledging behavior and outward migration of a hybrid Greater x Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga x A. pomarina). By Meyburg, B.-U. & C. Meyburg (2007)

Full text in English available as PDF:
http://www.raptor-research.de/pdfs/a_sp100p/a_sp134.pdf
Published in: Journal Raptor Research 41: 165-170

SUMMARY

A mixed eagle pair, consisting of a Lesser Spotted Eagle male Aquila pomarina and a Greater Spotted Eagle A. clanga female, which bred in an area in northeast Germany settled only by Lesser Spotted Eagles, and some 600 km outside the breeding range of the Greater Spotted Eagle, produced a single offspring which was fitted with a satellite transmitter while a nestling. The young hybrid chose a south-westerly outward migration route which, in contrast to the Lesser Spotted Eagle, is not uncommon for the Greater Spotted Eagle, although the initial migration took an almost easterly heading. An abrupt change of direction occurred, however, after 200 km. On 27 October, after covering a distance of 2,430 km, the young eagle reached the most southerly tip of Italy where transmitter fixes broke off. The average daily flight distance of 78.4 km compares more with that of four young Lesser Spotted Eagles (63, 75 , 97 und 152 km per day) as that of two young Greater Spotted Eagles (34 and 48 km per day) which were also fitted with transmitters. The migratory behavior can therefore be described as being intermediate between the two species.


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