About apples, particulalry Transparentes:
Hello, unp and others - hope you find your way here from Alice's Oregon Summer
- it would be a shame to flood it with even more apples.
unp, I thing the Beli Naliv, Papirovka et al issue today could be resolved with DNA analysis (same or different; how much related). If anything, the Papirovka description fits better with my Transparentes (grafts from Estonia + 1 tree bought in Sweden).
Where they came from - doubtful if it ever can be solved. Most of my books say, grown long before 1800 in Baltic states, Russia; exported to "major European states" (hmmm ...) from several tree nurseries at different times. One Swedish and one Estonian source, from the 1970ies, say that it would "now seem" that it came from the north of Estonia.
The "brought back with soldiers" origin is a classic with apples, indeed, plants. Of course it is true at times too. (For that matter, Swedish pomology started seriously with the marshals, generals etc. of the 30-year war bringing in all sorts of exotic apple varieties from continental Europe to their manors).
Synomym (?) names fill half a page. But they are from after it has started being described in literature.
The Swedish Pomological Society has an excursion on Sept 5, will see if I can get hold of somebody to ask about any recent investigations.