What We Know About Black Storks

Cameras Watching over Black Storks nest
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Anne7
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Re: What We Know About Black Storks

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Sperm storage in the female reproductive tract in birds.
... In avian species, the specialized simple tubular invaginations (cavities) referred to as sperm storage tubules (SSTs) are found in the oviduct as a sperm storage organ. ...
To achieve fertilization, the sperm must encounter the oocyte (egg cell) at the right time and at the right place. It is not thought to be an easy task for the sperm in vivo because they must migrate within the female genital tract and reach the site of fertilization when the oocyte is there. Also, the timing of ovulation in the female does not always coincide with the time of insemination by the male. In order to increase the chance of an encounter of the gametes (male and female germ cells), the female stores the sperm in a reproductive tract.

https://europepmc.org/article/med/23965601

Sperm survives quite some time in the SSTs (sperm storage tubules) of the Utero-Vaginal Junction. In domestic fowl 2 to 3 weeks and in turkeys 10 to 15 weeks.

Image

Schematic drawing of an avian oviduct. After ovulation, the oocyte (egg cell) is incorporated into the infundibulum part of the oviduct, and the sperm ascending the oviduct fertilises the oocyte within 15 min of ovulation. After fertilization, the surface of the zygote (the union of the sperm cell and the egg cell) is enveloped by several egg envelopes (i.e., albumen (egg white), shell membrane, egg shell and cuticle (outer coating)) through the passage of the oviduct, and is oviposited outside of the body. The position of the utero-vaginal junction is indicated by an arrow. The approximate time of zygote residency within each part of the oviduct is also indicated.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
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How Temperature Affects Egg Incubation
or WHAT IF THE POWER GOES OFF?


Zone of heat injury (above 40.5°C)
At continuous temperatures above 40.5°C no embryos would be expected to hatch. However the effect of short periods of high temperature are not necessarily lethal. Embryos up to 6 days are particularly susceptible, older embryos are more tolerant. For example, embryos up to 5 days may well be killed by a few hours exposure to 41°C, but approaching hatching time they may survive temperatures as high as 43.5°C for several hours.

Zone of hatching potential (35 - 40.5°C)
Within a range of 35 to 40.5°C there is the possibility of eggs hatching. The optimum (for hens) is 37.5 °C, above this temperature, as well as a reduced hatch there will be an increase in the number of crippled and deformed chicks. Above 40.5 °C no embryos will survive.
Continuous temperatures within this range but below optimum will slow development and increase mortalities. Again it is early embryos that are more susceptible to continuous slightly low temperatures than older embryos. From 16 days on it may be beneficial to lower the incubation temperature by up to 2°C. The effects of short term reduction in temperature are different and are discussed later.

Zone of disproportionate development (27 - 35°C)
Eggs kept above 27°C will start to develop. However the development will be disproportionate with some parts of the embryo developing faster than others and some organs may not develop at all. Below 35°C (continuous) no embryo is likely to survive to hatch. Typically the heart is enlarged and the head development more advanced than the trunk and limbs.
The temperature at the lower end of this range is sometimes referred to as ‘Physiological zero’ - the threshold temperature for embryonic development. Unfortunately different organs appear to have different thresholds resulting in an embryo that cannot survive.

Zone of suspended development (-2°C — 27°C)
Below about 27°C no embryonic development takes place. Prior to incubation, eggs must be stored in this temperature range, ideally around 15°C.

Zone of cold injury (-2°C)
Below this threshold ice crystals will start to form in the egg and permanently damage may be done to internal structures meaning the egg cannot hatch. Eggs may lie for some considerable time in temperatures close to freezing without suffering damage.

The analysis above gives us a fair idea of what may be happening to embryos kept continuously or for long periods within these temperature bands. Of course continuous incubation at any temperature other than near optimum is of little practical interest because it will not result in live birds but this information does give a better understanding of what may happen if eggs should be accidentally overheated or chilled.


Short term temperature effects
Surprisingly there is evidence that, during the early phase of incubation, chilling of eggs to below ‘physiological zero’ (say 25°C) does less harm than chilling to temperatures above that level. Embryos up to 7 days old may well survive cooling to near freezing for 24 hours or more without damage. The cooling delays hatching but not by as much as the period of chilling - so there appears to be some degree of compensation. The older the embryo, the more likely it is to die as a result of chilling to below 27°C but the effect on surviving embryos is not detrimental.

Other experiments have concentrated on cooling eggs less severely to temperatures within the zone of ‘disproportionate development’. In virtually all such experiments, increases in hatchability have been noted. There is some doubt as to whether the effect is due to changes in humidity, CO2 level or to chilling alone.

...

Remember that incubator thermometer readings will not be the same as embryo temperatures when cooling or heating occurs. The eggs will lag behind the air temperature. For example, cooling hens eggs by taking them out of the incubator into a room at 20°C for 30-40 minutes is likely to cool the internal egg temperature by only 3-5°C. Bigger or smaller eggs will react quicker or slower accordingly.

There isn’t much data on the effects of cooling eggs of other species. Duck eggs and, to an even greater extent, goose eggs are said to benefit from periodic cooling. Our own experience seems to confirm this and we know of instances where the eggs of both duck and domestic geese have been subjected to severe cooling for several hours without harm.

There is an obvious link to the natural incubation process where most species of bird leave the nest for short periods to feed leaving the incubating eggs to cool without apparent problems. It is quite possible that the resulting cooling and re-heating provides a stimulus to the embryo which actually encourages growth. If the effect is more pronounced in ducks and geese it may be because the requirement has, to some extent, been bred out of hens by years of artificial incubation. It would follow that totally wild species may be even more susceptible to a cooling stimulus. Certainly there is no evidence to suggest that short term cooling is likely to be harmful.

https://brinsea.co.uk/latest/wp-content ... f-2010.pdf
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Do Birds Dream?
Scientists who study the brain activity of humans during REM sleep often ask their human subjects what they dreamed about in order to decipher what the brain activity patterns mean. Birds also exhibit signs of REM sleep. Are they dreaming?
It’s a fascinating question, but unfortunately there’s no answer right now. In birds, the patterns of neuronal activity in different brain regions during REM sleep can be measured, but (obviously) scientists cannot ask birds about their dream content.
However, in male Zebra Finches the neurons in the song system of the brain show spontaneous bursting patterns during sleep. It is thought that this kind of dreamlike replay during sleep might aid song learning and memory.

https://www.allaboutbirds.org/news/do-birds-dream/


viewtopic.php?p=729398#p729398

Homosexual behaviour in birds: Frequency of expression is related to parental care disparity between the sexes
Homosexual behaviour occurs in over 130 species of birds, yet explaining its maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic at face value, as such sexual behaviours do not seem in immediate pursuit of reproductive goals. Parental care sexual conflict theory predicts that release from parental care translates to an increased propensity towards polygamous sexual behaviour. We hypothesized that homosexual behaviour(s) may be expected to increase in frequency for the sex that invests less in parental care and potentially enjoys increased mating opportunities. Consistent with our predictions, lower relative contribution to parental care for a particular sex is related to increased frequency of occurrence of homosexual behaviour. For males, highly polygynous species with minimal male parental investment exhibit higher frequencies of male homosexual behaviour, including male–male mounting and especially courtship. In socially monogamous species, male parental investment is greater, and the expression of male homosexual behaviour is lower. Similarly, among pair-bonding species, frequencies of male–male pair bonding increase with decreases in male contribution to care relative to females. When females of socially monogamous species provide less care than males, they exhibit higher frequencies of homosexual behaviour, namely pair bonding and courtship activities. Conversely, when females of polygynous species provide the bulk of parental care, female–female sexual behaviour is infrequently expressed. Homosexual behaviour in birds is more likely to occur under scenarios of enhanced mating opportunity without necessarily influencing reproductive success and thus may exist neutrally, or alternatively provide a behavioural template co-opted for adaptive design.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... _the_sexes


And also this article in "MOTHER NATURE NETWORK"
Evolution of homosexuality in birds explained
A new study published this week may mark the end of the theory that homosexuality only has evolutionary disadvantages, according to Nature*.
The findings, based on observations of 93 bird species that are known to engage in homosexual activity, revealed that the amount of time males or females put toward parental care was proportional to how often they engage in homosexual behavior.
This means that homosexuality may not be costly for birds that have plenty of mating opportunities because of lower parenting demands, said Geoff MacFarlane, one of the study's principal researchers.
In other words, since some animals can devote more energy toward mating behavior than to raising offspring, there is wiggle room for homosexuality to become a common behavior without sacrificing evolutionary efficiency.
Previously, biologists struggled to explain how homosexuality could have evolved since it distracts animals from sexual activity that directly produces offspring. The fact that it had evolved was difficult to deny: more than 130 species of birds participate in homosexual activity. For example, among Laysan albatrosses, as many as 31 percent of all pairings are female-female. Among graylag geese, one in five pairings are male-male.
The research team reached its conclusion by scoring each bird species based upon the relative contribution of males and females to parental chores. They found that male homosexuality is more prevalent among bird species in which the female is more heavily devoted to parenting tasks (such as tending the nest or feeding and caring for chicks). Similarly, when females had more free time, female homosexuality was more frequently witnessed.
Overall, the research discovered that 38 percent of the species studied display female–female sexual behavior and 82 percent participate in male–male behavior. In total, 5 percent of all sexual encounters among all the species was homosexual in nature.
"This is one of the few studies that explains homosexual behavior from the evolutionary point of view," said Vincent Savolainen, a biologist at Imperial College London.
Although the study dispels of the theory that homosexuality is evolutionarily disadvantageous or unnatural, it cannot determine what the ultimate explanation for homosexuality is. As evolutionary geneticist Allen Moore points out, "this study suggests that when there's no cost, homosexuality can persist, which isn't the same as saying it's adaptive. It may be that when there's no parental care involved, it's like having a hobby."
Researchers have speculated, though, that homosexual behavior in birds may help them to practice courtship displays, form alliances, reduce social tension or solidify dominance.

https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/anima ... -explained


* https://www.nature.com/news/2010/100709 ... 0.344.html
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.
NEW PUBLICATIONS IN 2020

Modelling risks posed by wind turbines and power lines to soaring birds: the black stork (Ciconia nigra) in Italy as a case study (Italy, 2020)
Sonia Smeraldo, Luciano Bosso, Maurizio Fraissinet, Lucio Bordignon, Massimo Brunelli, Leonardo Ancillotto & Danilo Russo
Abstract
Recent growth of investments in wind energy and power industries has increased concerns about the associated adverse impacts on wildlife. In particular, flying vertebrates are especially at risk, both directly, through an extra mortality rate due to collision with turbines and electrocution, and indirectly through habitat loss or fragmentation. In this study, we propose a modelling approach that combines species distribution models and data managed in geographic information systems to predict and quantify the effects of wind turbines and power lines on the breeding habitat of a soaring migratory bird, the black stork Ciconia nigra, in Italy. The species is recolonizing the country, where it had been driven to extinction in the Middle Age by human persecution. Today, infrastructures such as those considered in our study might in fact hamper this recolonization. Our results show a high probability of presence of the species in several areas in Italy. The most important variables in influencing habitat suitability for C. nigra are the mean temperature of May followed by the distance from urban areas, inland wetlands and hydrographic network. Exposure to wind turbine collision and electrocution resulted to be potentially high. In particular, in Northern Italy the main potential risk of mortality for C. nigra is posed by power lines, whereas in southern regions the species might be mostly threatened by wind turbines. Our approach makes it possible to detect suitable areas that, although not yet colonized by the species, would imply a high mortality risk should the species colonize them in the future. The tool we provide may therefore prove useful to conservationists and landscape planners in order to mitigate the impact of human infrastructures on this species and encourage a more sustainable planning.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 20-01961-3


New nest sites of Black Stork Ciconia nigra in Khuzestan Province, Iran (Iran, march 2020)
MOSTAFA YUSEFI, SEIFOLAH HASHEMI, KERAMAT HAFEZI & ALI T QASHQAEI
Black Stork Ciconia nigra is a rare breeding and migrant species in Iran and was assessed as an uncommon summer visitor, passage migrant and winter visitor in the country during 1967 to 1978 (Scott 1995, Qashqaei et al 2017, DA Scott pers comm). In that period, Black Stork apparently bred in small numbers in remote regions of the Alborz Mountains, the mountains of North Khorasan, the Zagros Mountains and the Kerman highlands, but there were few confirmed breeding records. Also, small number of Black Storks wintered at wetlands such as Gavkhuni and Kabutarkhan and along permanent rivers such as lower Zaindeh Rud in central and southern Iran, from Esfahan southwards (Scott 1995, Qashqaei et al 2017, DA Scott pers comm; Table 1). There are few further details on the presence and breeding of Black Stork in Iran, with just four confirmed breeding records during 1970- 2016 (Scott 2007, Qashqaei et al 2017). This report documents the fifth and sixth confirmed breeding records of the species in Shimbar Protected Area, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Al ... e-Iran.pdf


First report of one ecto- and two endoparasite species of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) in Portugal
Abstract
Background
The black stork (Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, 1758) is a recognized endangered species in Europe and most of the specimens from the Western Palearctic region breed in the Iberian Peninsula. Available works regarding parasites in black storks are scarce.
Methods
A black stork was captured in southern Portugal after colliding against electric cables. The specimen did not resist to injuries and a post-mortem exam was performed. During the procedure, several ecto and endoparasites were found.
Results
The collected parasites were lice (Neophilopterus tricolor), nematodes (Desportesius sagittatus) and trematodes (Cathaemasia hians).
Conclusions
Three different parasite species are reported for the first time in a black stork from Portugal.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... n_Portugal


First report of Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788) of a free-ranged black stork (Ciconia nigra) from India.
Saidul Islam ; Sorang Tadap ; Jahan Ahmed ; Raisim, B. K.
Veterinary Practitioner 2019 Vol.20 No.2 pp.174-176 ref.11
Abstract : During post-mortem examination of a free-ranged black stork (Ciconia nigra) at the Biological Park, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India, spirurid nematodes were recovered from the air sac which were identified as female Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788). Morphological characters have been described and documented. Authors claim this is the first report of occurrence of D. ciconiae from India, outside the European territory already reported elsewhere.
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abs ... 0203263110


Breeding success of black stork (ciconia nigra) in artificial nests
Zubrickaitė, Gabija
Vilniaus universitetas; Master‘s Thesis 2020

Abstract
Forestry activities are leading to a decline in habitats suitable for Ciconia nigra throughout Europe. Fewer and fewer mature trees remain in the forests, where black storks nest. Artificial nests attached to trees can partially replace old tree branches. The main aim of this study is to investigate the factors that determine the breeding success of black storks in artificial nests. Goals of the paper: to find out what environmental factors determine the occupancy of artificial nests and the success of breeding in them; to investigate whether the nests in protected areas are occupied more often; to determine what kind of disturbances cause the abandonment of artificial nests. From 2014 to 2019, 148 artificial nests were inspected in Lithuanian forests each year. Ciconia nigra activity was observed in 31,1% of the artificial nests, while juveniles were found in 10,1% of the artificial nests. Nest occupancy began to increase rapidly in the fourth year of the study, and fell in 2019, possibly due to the drought. The most artificial nests, occupied by non-breeding black storks, were attached to pine trees, while most breeding pairs chose oaks. Most of the artificial nests with Ciconia nigra activity were found in biosphere polygons. Juvenile black storks were found in 23.3% of these nests. Ciconia nigra avoided artificial nests located less than 200 meters away from large wetlands or logging sites. In areas occupied by Haliaeetus albicilla, there were no signs of black stork activity in artificial nests. If long dry periods do not recur and there are few disturbing factors for black storks in the areas around artificial nests, these birds will likely occupy more trees with attached artificial nests and choose to breed there more often in the future.
Full text available in Lithuanian.
https://epublications.vu.lt/object/elaba:69464871/



Records of Black Stork Ciconia nigra from the Rivers of Kashmir Valley, India
Iqram ul Haq, Bilal A. BHat, Zaffar Rais Mirr, Rouf Ahmad, Khursheed Ahmad
and Asad R. Rahmani

First published: May 30, 2020
Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

During our regular surveys of riverine birds along the Kashmir Himalaya, the Black Stork was observed at two rivers (Sindh in Ganderbal district and Veshaw in Kulgam district) from November 03 to 23, 2018. The birds were usually recorded at an elevation of around 1,750 m above msl. The 1st sighting was of one subadult on November 03, 2018 along the Sindh river (34.27° N; 74.89° E). In all, seven sightings were obtained till November 23, 2018. The storks were observed solitarily, in pairs, and in loose parties of 3–20 birds. The highest number of 20 individuals (13 adults and seven subadults) was spotted on November 09, 2018 along the Veshaw river (33.63° N; 75.02° E). Our observations at the two rivers suggest that Black Stork use these sites as stopovers for one week to a maximum of three weeks. The storks used large trees along the rivers as roosting sites in the afternoon and after sunset, while other areas in the rivers, like islands, were used for day roosting around noon.
Although the rivers of Kashmir still attract a good number of bird species, these habitats are facing tremendous pressure due to increasing human interference, encroachment, pollution, and over-fishing. Sindh and Veshaw rivers are no exception, as they are facing severe anthropogenic pressure in terms of sand and boulder extraction and pollution. These activities may deteriorate the habitat and lead to food scarcity, which will have a negative effect on the wintering population of riverine birds, including passage migrants like the Black Stork. There is a dire need to conserve these river ecosystems.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Iq ... Valley.pdf


Soaring bird migration in 2015 spring at Belen Pass, Hatay, Turkey
Meltem ÜNAL ALTUNDAĞ and Ahmet KARATAŞ
Accepted: 13. June 2020
Abstract:
We have monitored spring season soaring bird migration at Belen Pass between March 6th and May 20th, 2015. During the study, a total of 50 082 soaring migratory birds were counted and 29 species belonging to five families of five orders were recorded. White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) was the most abundant species with 46 525 individuals. It was followed by Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) with 1 142 individuals, Common Crane (Grus grus) (Linnaeus, 1758) with 723 individuals, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Clanga pomarina) with 619 individuals, and Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) with 274 individuals. Migration had gained pace between March 31st and April 2nd with the highest daily count on March 31st with 7160 individuals. Although altitude of migration was between 10 and 900 m, the soaring birds passed mostly between 400 and 500 m.
Image
The most abundant migratory soaring bird species at 2015 spring migrating season. From left to right: Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Common Crane (Grus grus), White Stork (Cicoina ciconia), Lesser Spoted Eagle (Clanga pomarina), and Black Stork (Ciconia nigra)
© Biharean Biologist, Oradea, Romania, 2020
Full text: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Me ... Turkey.pdf


A corridor of soaring bird migration in Lebanon on the Eastern Mediterranean flyway (Lebanon, 2020)
BERND-ULRICH MEYBURG, IVAYLO ANGELOV & SAMER AZAR
Summary:
We document the existence of a narrow autumn migration corridor for soaring birds in Lebanon, qualifying as a “bottleneck site”, situated within the greater Eastern Mediterranean flyway. Over 11 days in September–October 2019, we counted 8751 raptors of 23 species, during observations lasting on average 3.5 hours per day. The raptors use the strong thermal and orographic updrafts that form above the mountain from early morning, and then migrate south along the mountain ridge for at least 35 km. During early morning hours the birds usually flew at altitudes below 300 m. This provided good identification opportunities, especially for species that are often hard to be reliably identified at raptor migration sites. We document the highest counts thus far recorded in Lebanon of Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga (80 individuals), Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus (718), Black Kite Milvus migrans (2769) and Northern Steppe Buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus (1290). Observations of Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus, Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides (two individuals) and Oriental Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus are among the first ten records in Lebanon for those species. ...
Results:
... We counted 8751 raptors belonging to 23 species, plus 250 Great White Pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalus, 135 Black Storks Ciconia nigra and 22 Common Cranes Grus grus. The most common species were Black Kite Milvus migrans, Lesser Spotted Eagle and Northern Steppe Buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus, accounting for 77% of all raptors. Levant Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes, Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus and Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, comprised another 19.3% of all raptors. A notable count of 80 Greater Spotted Eagles was made, with 48 passing during the peak migration day (4 October) together with 1529 Lesser Spotted Eagles.
The soaring birds mostly flew above the highest parts of the eastern slope of Barouk mountain, moving south, following the ridge. We were able to trace the migration bottleneck along 36 km, and observed that birds most often used the same flight route. In doing so, they largely took advantage of thermal updrafts along the whole eastern slope of the mountain, but also made use of orographic updrafts, especially during days with east winds. However, when strong west winds occurred (eg on 29 September), conditions at the viewpoint were much less favorable. In such conditions, soaring bird migration shifted to the east, to the other side of the Beqaa valley at the foot of Anti- Lebanon mountain. There, for 1 h 40 min, we counted more than 1100 raptors, mostly Black Kites (800) and Levant Sparrowhawks (250), but also a juvenile Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus and 27 Lesser Spotted Eagles, among others.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Be ... flyway.pdf
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Assessing the scope and scale of illegal killing and taking of birds in the Mediterranean,
and establishing a basis for systematic monitoring

BirdLife INTERNATIONAL
"Overexploitation, in particular illegal killing and taking, is one of the main threats driving birds towards extinction globally and is known to be a particular and growing issue of concern, especially across the Mediterranean. ...
In 2014/15 BirdLife International led a 1.5-year project aiming to review all aspects of illegal killing and taking of birds in the Mediterranean. National legislation of the 27 assessed Mediterranean and peri-Mediterranean countries/territories was reviewed to define what was illegal at national level. Information on the species affected and the number of individuals illegally killed/taken each year, the worst locations and the illegal practices used in these countries/territories were then compiled using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. These data were analysed to quantitatively assess the approximate scale and scope of illegal killing and taking of birds in the region and identify some of the species of greatest concern, and the highest priority locations at which urgent remedial action is required to tackle this threat. We estimated that 11-36 million individual birds per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. ..."
http://www.birdlife.org/sites/default/f ... ersion.pdf
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Internal parasites and associated histopathological changes in deceased white storks from Poland
Belgian Journal of Zoology, 2020
M. Michalczyk, R. Sokół, M. Gesek, M. Mączyński & D. Będzłowicz
Abstract.
The aim of this study was to analyze the parasitic fauna of dead white storks in nesting sites in different parts of Poland and the associated histopathological changes. Samples from thirty-eight white storks aged 3 weeks to 5 years were examined after their arrival at a stork sanctuary. The presence of Cathaemasia hians, Chaunocephalus ferox, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Railletina tetragona and Syngamus trachea was confirmed in 17 out of 38 (47.73 %) individuals. Cathaemasia hians and Chaunocephalus ferox flukes are not endemic to the studied area. The frequency of C. ferox was significantly higher in the youngest storks from group I (3–4 weeks old) compared to groups II (11–15 weeks old) and III (older than 2 years). Fluke eggs were only detected with sedimentation method in three samples (group III), while no adult flukes at all were found in the intestines. Chaunocephalus ferox was shown to be the most common pathogen in all storks studied when compared to other parasites. A histopathological examination of the jejunum and ileum revealed atherosclerotic changes in the muscular layer, lymphoid infiltration in the mucosa, the presence of adult flukes of C. hians and C. ferox in the intestinal lumen, and lymphoid infiltration in the muscular layer. Intense lymphoid infiltration in the mucosa was also observed in storks whose intestines were heavily infested with R. tetragona and C. infundibulum. Parasitic infections compromise the birds’ health status and affect the duration of flights, and they can increase the risk of other diseases.
https://www.belgianjournalofzoology.eu/ ... oad/74/102


A Case of Chaunocephalosis by Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Korea
Seongjun Choe, Dongmin Lee, Hansol Park, Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Youngsun Lee, Ki-Jeong Na, Shi-Ryong Park, and Keeseon S. Eom
Abstract
We intended to describe a case of chaunocephalosis and morphological characteristics of its causative agent, Chaunocephalus ferox, recovered from an oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in the Republic of Korea. An oriental white stork was referred to the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk in Korea in February 2014 for severe depression with cachexia and it died the next day. At necropsy, the stomach was severely expanded and 7 thick-walled nodules were observed in the upper part of the intestine. Although the stomach was filled with full of foreign materials, the intestine was almost empty. The nodules were globular and total 9 flukes were recovered. They were 8,030–8,091 μm in length and 3,318–3,333 μm in maximum width. Because the flukes had bulbous forebody with short narrow subcylindrical hindbody, 27 collar spines, and vitelline follicles not reaching to the posterior end, the specimens were identified as being C. ferox. The cyst formation induced thickening of the intestinal wall with narrowing of the lumen that could have contributed to the gastric impaction to the death of the host. This is the first described case of chaunocephalosis and its causative agent C. ferox found from an oriental white stork in Korea.
...
Chaunocephalosis is an infection of echinostomatid flukes that belong to the genus Chaunocephalus. These flukes induce granulomatous nodules on the intestinal wall in which they then live. The ciconiform birds, including the African open-billed stork (Anastomu lamelligerus), Asian open-billed stork (Anastomus oscitans), oriental white stork (C. boyciana), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), maguari stork (Ciconia maguari), black stork (Ciconia nigra), and black-necked stork (Xenrhynchus asiaticus) are known to be the main definitive hosts for these echinostomes ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5127536/


AN APPROACH TO DETERMINE THE SIZE OF THE PROTECTED ZONE AROUND THE BLACK STORK CICONIA NIGRA (L.) NESTS (Ukraine)
Article accepted 28.03.2019
Ukrainian National Forestry University, Lviv, Ukraine
At the end of 2016, the concept of protection zones around nests of rare species of birds was introduced into Ukrainian legislati- on. This applies to the Black Stork Ciconia nigra (L.), a species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009). For all species except Storks the radius of a protection zone is equal to European standards, but for this particular species, it was increased to the radius of 1000 m around the nest throughout the whole year. In 2006-2018 studies of the number and distribution, biotope preferences and nes- ting biology of the species on the territory of the Ukrainian Polissya (Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kiev, Chernihiv and Sumy regions) were conducted. On the Western Polissya (Volyn and Rivne area) permanent monitoring of the nesting biology of Black Stork was done. The studies have shown that the radius of 1000 m around the nest is excessive and inappropriate. The first drawback of such an approach is the lack of seasonality when creating a protection zone. The second one is such a large radius. The aim of this paper is to provide arguments supporting an optimal size of protection zones around Black Stork nests. It was proven that 54 % of nests are located not farther than 200 m from the edge of the forest. The importance of the 500-meter forest area around the nest is also confirmed by Belarusian scientists. According to their data, in 83.3 % of cases, the perching place of Black Storks is located within this distance and is needed for birds to estimate the safety of approaching a nest. It is recommended to consider seasonality and to create protection zones of two types – zones of strict protection (with a radius of at least 100 m around the nest) and zones of seasonal protection (radius of not less than 500 m). Within zones of strict protection, any human activity and even presence of people should be forbidden throughout the year. In areas of seasonal protection, the same should be implied only in a period between March 15 and July 30. On forest roads and clearings that pass through the area of strict protection, we recommend the installation of special signs. The study was financially supported by the "CICONIA" fund (Lichtenstein) within the scope of the project "Ciconia-Ukraina" that was realized by West-Ukrainian Ornithological Society and State Museum of Natural History of NAS of Ukraine.
https://nv.nltu.edu.ua/Archive/2019/29_2/8.pdf


Sustainability assessment of forest bioenergy options - integrating biodiversity components (Lithuania)
Mörtberg, Ulla; Pang, Xi; Treinys, Rimgaudas; Trubins, Renats 2019
Forest management tends to intensify in many countries due to climate change mitigation, which require more forest bioenergy as substitution for fossil fuel. However, the intensified forestry may be detrimental to biodiversity, especially for species dependent on old forest habitat. In order to simultaneously assess production of forest bioenergy feedstock and habitat potential for biodiversity, we developed the Landscape simulation and Ecological Assessment (LEcA) tool, linking simulation of forest growth and management (LandSim), a yield calculator, and a habitat assessment model. The aim was to integrate production of forest bioenergy feedstock, industrial wood, and biodiversity tied to mature and old forest, in a sustainability assessment of forest bioenergy options. The study area was the country of Lithuania where two forest management scenarios were applied, business-as-usual (BAU) and intensive-forestry (INT). The landscape simulation was run for a 100 years period with 5 year time steps. Forest biodiversity was represented by area of old forest as well as nesting habitat for two model species, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Clanga pomarina) preferring forest edges, and Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) preferring interior forest. The results showed that forest bioenergy yields may be higher in the INT scenario during the first decades of the simulation period, but in the long run will only be slightly higher compared to the BAU scenario. However, the impacts on the habitat of the forest birds would be considerable, where the habitat area would be 14% smaller for C. pomarina and 17% smaller for C. nigra, in the INT scenario compared to BAU. The landscape simulation showed that there may be conflicts between sustainability objectives related to climate change mitigation and biodiversity, and that intensive forestry may not necessarily be an effective mitigation measure. The model results has potential to inform policy and planning concerning several sustainability aspects.
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record ... dswid=-184


May sympatric Lesser Spotted Eagles and Black Storks compete for nesting sites in spatially varying environments? (Lithuania)
Saulis Skuja, Gintautas Mozgeris, Rimgaudas Treinys
Baltic Forestry, 2019
Abstract
Sympatric species are likely to compete with one another unless there is a low degree of overlap in their resource use, in which case these species are able to coexist. Disclosing of biotic interactions between sympatric species is important from both theoretical and practical perspectives, especially when the species are of conservation concern. However, environmental heterogeneity may introduce variation in the intensity of biotic interactions due to differential a varying species responses to the environmental gradient. In this study, we analysed the overlap in nesting sites between the internationally protected, mature, forest-dwelling Lesser Spotted Eagle Clanga pomarina and the Black Stork Ciconia nigra. The importance of landscape heterogeneity for habitat segregation between these species was also assessed. The nesting sites of 123 pairs of Lesser Spotted Eagles and 78 pairs of Black Storks, located across different landscapes of the Central, Central-Eastern and Eastern Lithuanian ecoregions were described. A series of discriminant analyses were performed to explore the pattern of habitat differentiation between species nesting in the above-mentioned regions. The habitat differentiation was estimated by niche overlap values (range 0-1, with a value 0.6 suggested to be the threshold between coexistence and competition). Comparison of nesting sites of mature forest-dwellers resulted in the niche overlap values for Central, Central-Eastern and Eastern regions being 0.5, 0.63 and 0.55, respectively. These results indicated relatively high niche overdispersion between nesting sites occupied by eagles and storks. Different variables and/or their combinations resulted in habitat differences in each ecoregion. Our data indicate that biotic interaction between species is mediated by environmental heterogeneity. Although our data tend to support the coexistence of the Black Stork and the Lesser Spotted Eagle, in certain regions these mature, forest-dwelling predators may use similar habitats and compete for prime sites under specific landscape structures. We, therefore, propose the necessity of the importance of a spatially-segregated estimation on biotic interactions when developing conservation programmes and allocating conservation actions within the target region.
Full text (pdf) available here: https://www.balticforestry.mi.lt/ojs/in ... e/view/134
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Liz01
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Posts: 54095
Joined: January 21st, 2014, 2:06 pm
Location: Germany Ribnitz-Damgarten

Post by Liz01 »

It's not about Black Stork, is about Birds generally
Contribution by Shai Blitzblau, a FB friend from the Hefer Bird Research Station in Israel

Effects of prey colour on bird predation: an experiment in Mediterranean woodlands

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... Jl6Ib2_H0s
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Anne7
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Posts: 6414
Joined: April 15th, 2016, 3:26 pm
Location: Belgium

Post by Anne7 »

Thanks a lot, Liz :wave:
That's very interesting. :2thumbsup:


NEW PUBLICATIONS IN 2021

Spatial and temporal trends in mercury levels in the down of black stork chicks in central Europe
Katarzyna Kucharska, Łukasz J. Binkowski, Krzysztof Dudzikb
Abstract:
Piscivorous avian species may be affected by mercury (Hg) which tends to accumulate in aquatic environments and biomagnifies across the food webs. One of such species is the black stork, whose population increase recently slowed down due to unknown reasons. At the same time Hg contamination and its effects were almost unaudited for this species, so it may have exerted deleterious effects on the population and an evaluation is necessary. This is the first study of this species concerning Hg contamination. Thus, Hg concentrations were investigated in the down of black stork chicks (N = 90) from breeding locations in central and southern Poland (Europe) between 2015 and 2017. As well as Hg levels, morphometric parameters and age were evaluated. Mean Hg concentrations reached 0.7 μg/g d.w. and differed significantly between years, from the lowest value noted in 2017 (mean 0.5 μg/g), through 2016 (0.7 μg/g), to the highest one in 2015 (0.9 μg/g), and between nest locations where higher Hg levels were generally found in northern parts of the study area. Hg concentrations were also unrelated to morphometric parameters. Contrarily, morphometric parameters revealed high correlations between themselves, which was confirmed by the cluster analysis (revealing only two clusters) and principal component analysis (the first PC explained 96.8% of the variance). Hg levels in the down of black storks were rather low with the fluctuation between years and nest locations probably caused by parental exposure during wintering, migration, pre-breeding season and recent exposure through food provided by parents. Such low Hg concentrations seemed not to affect the population from the region studied.
Highlights:
• Hg concentrations decreased between 2015 and 2017.
Nests close to cities and power-plants showed elevated Hg concentrations.
• Hg levels were not related to morphometry parameters.
• morphometry parameters were highly correlated between themselves.
• Hg seemed to not affect black stork population from the region studied. (central and southern Poland)

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 9121001494
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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