Status of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) in countries other than Estonia
Status of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Hungary in the year 2000
KALOCSA Bela & TAMAS Eniko Anna
ABSTRACT - Based on a systematic survey, an overall analysis of the nesting habits and breeding success of the Black Stork in Hungary is given, focusing on the densest population. Breeding data throughout the country are updated, the most preferred habitats are determined and population trends are investigated.
Based on data obtained till the end of the year 2000, we can estimate the number of breeding Black Stork pairs in Hungary at 250. In 1996 we estimated the number of breeding pairs at a maximum of 200. The number of known successful breedings in 2000 is 73, the known number of fledged youngs is 263. The average number of young per nest - considering successful breedings - in the year 2000 is 3.6. According to these figures one could conclude that the population has been increasing in the country since the mid-1990's, but this may also indicate an increased observers activity rather than an increase in the number of nesting pairs.
https://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bull ... 1-4_45.pdf
Status of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Wallonia (Belgium), and choice of the nesting sites (French article, in English p.36)
Gérard JADOUL & Pauline CABARET
The Black Stork gradually spreads into the areas from which it has historically disappeared, and even extends its distribution into areas where it has never nested before. Since 1989, the number of discovered nests has increased from year to year. In this report, we asked the following questions: what is the progression and colonization mode of the birds in the forest of Wallonia? On which criteria do the storks rely on to choose a nesting site?
https://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bull ... 1-4_28.pdf
Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in France. Revision of the effective breeding birds status
(in English p.59)
Villarubias S., Brossault P. & Seriot J.
Summary: It is only in 1973 that the first Black Stork breeding case was recorded for France, in Indre-et-Loire. The breeding success of the bird then was formally proved in 1976, in Jura (LOISEAU, 1977). The Black Stork is discovered again in Indre-et-Loire in 1979, Maine-et-Loire in 1981, Gers in 1983, and during the 1990-1993 period in Deux-SËvres, Aube and Ardennes, Lorraine, Vosges, CÙte d'Or, Cher and Indre. Those two periods of settlement correspond to those noted in Belgium and Luxemburg. In 1990, the Black Stork breeding population was estimated at 13- 17 pairs (DUQUET & MICHEL, 1994). Since 1993, as part of a program on the "rare and threatened breeding birds in France", this species was given a closer look with more frequent censuses. That year, 20-38 pairs were counted especially in the centre and centre-west of the country (MICHEL & VILLARUBIAS, 1995). In 1994, the population is estimated to 23-40 pairs spreading from west to east. Twenty-one to forty-one pairs are counted in 1995, and 22-35 pairs in 1997. Those numbers are approximations due to the discretion of the species. We noted a relative stagnation from year to year, in contradiction with the international situation. Therefore, it was necessary, according to those results collected during the "Cigognes sans frontiËres" program and the national enquiry started in 1999, to estimate more accurately the number and the tendency of the breeding population in France.
https://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bull ... 1-4_50.pdf
Black storks almost faded back from our nature
(Czech Republic, 2011)
Mgr. Anna Hoffmannová, Zoologist
Although black storks are not relatives of sea eagles, they have a lot in common with them. We can even find many places in the Czech Republic where we can meet both species. They don’t need much: only older, widespread forests with trees suitable for building a nest, the vicinity of watercourses or water areas, and a peaceful environment. Both these bird species are sensitive to disturbance and landscape changes caused by unsuitable forestry interventions, especially at the early stage of nesting. This may be the reason why black storks and sea eagles search for protected areas for nesting: The limitation of forest management and the suppression of disturbing human activities create conditions suitable for bringing up the young. The occurrence of both species is tied up with a Palaearctic area and, among others, they have had similar fates also, in that nature almost lost them! Their numbers significantly dropped over the last hundred-plus years, and only in the second half of the 20th century have nesting populations begun to grow again. The dramatic fall in their numbers was caused by humans — especially by direct hunting and thoughtless or unsuitably scheduled interventions in forests.
https://www.zoobrno.cz/img/old/en/more- ... fi-k02.pdf
Phenology of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) migrations in Ukraine
ABSTRACT - Data on Black Stork migration was collected from 1973 till 2000 for the spring passage and from 1964 till 2000 for the autumn migration. They were grouped based on administrative regions of the country. In spring, Black Storks arrive generally during the second half of March and the first half of April. In West Ukraine, the migration begins earlier. The course of migration is similar to that of White Stork. Periods of autumn migration are more extended and more variable. Normal autumn migration occurs in August and September. The last birds are observed from the end of August till October.
Introduction: Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is one of the rare bird species in Ukraine. It is listed in the Red Book of the country. Southern limit of its present breeding range goes over western and northern regions of Ukraine: Chernivtsi, Khmelnitsky, Zhitomir, Kyiv, Chernigiv, Sumy. Since the 1970s and 1980s, range widening and increase in number were observed (GRISHCHENKO et al., 1992; GRISHCHENKO, 1994a, 1996). The present breeding population is estimated to be at least 400-500 pairs. During migration and over-summering Black Storks can be observed almost in the whole territory of Ukraine.
https://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bull ... -4_165.pdf
The Status of Black Stork Population in Belarus Polesie
M.G. DMITRENOK and P.A. PAKUL
The State Scientific and Production Amalgamation "Scientific and practical centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for biological resources, Minsk, Belarus
The study was carried out in Belarus Polesie (Stolin district, Brest region). The monitoring plot (95 km2) is located in the valley of the Pripyat River.
Monitoring of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra population number in 2011-2018 showed a small fluctuation in the number of territorial pairs (the density was 24-30 pairs per 100 km2 of forest). Breeding success was changing from 0.5 to 1.4 chicks per territorial pair. The number of chicks per successful pair varied from 2.2 to 3.4. During some years up to 67% of pairs do not start nesting (they visit nests, but do not start breeding).
A significant decline in breeding success was noted in 2015 and is still ongoing (during 2015-2018 breeding success was 0.5-0.8 chicks per pair). We associate this with drought and with a significant decrease in the number of frogs in the forest (from 600-700 individuals per 1 km of route accounting in 2013 to 1-20 individuals per 1 km of rout accounting in 2015-2018). In previous years, frogs were the main food of the Black Stork chicks at the monitoring plot. During the years when the frogs disappeared, the main food of the chicks was small fish.
In 2015-2018 the causes of death of chicks were identified with the help of camera-traps (44 nesting attempt were traced). In our studies, the following animal species were the cause of unsuccessful nesting:
1. Goshawk Accipiter gentilis – one nestling was killed.
2. White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla. In 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 we recorded one case of Black Stork nest destruction per one breeding season. Before 2015, we did not find nests that were ravaged by White-tailed Eagle.
3. Black Stork Ciconia nigra. Two cases of destruction of clutches were recorded because of the attack of other individuals of Black Storks (not from its pair).
Thus, the local population of the Black Stork in the Belarusian Polesie is in a relatively stable state. However, changes in weather conditions (drought) and the subsequent deterioration of the food supply may lead to a drop in the number of the species in the future. Among local species of predators, White-tailed Eagle causes the most significant damage to the local population.
http://forestiersdumonde.org/wp-content ... t-Book.pdf
Contributed by Liz01
Longevity and survival of the black stork Ciconia nigra based on ring recoveries (Hungary)
Eniko ̋ Anna Tamás
Abstract: To understand population dynamics, the determination of survival rates is very important. For the black stork Ciconia nigra, no survival rate determination has been published to date. This might be due to the fact that ringing activity and recovery numbers, in general, are still relatively low for the species. The international black stork colour-ringing programme is taking place with the participation of 25 countries including Hungary. Altogether more than 7,000 black storks have been colour-ringed worldwide, of which 1,069 individuals were marked in Hungary. This article’s objective is the determination of the survival rates for the black stork, as well as to estimate the longevity of the species based on live encounters of ringed individuals. The conclusions are that longevity can be estimated based on the data, and is in agreement with previous knowledge; and that the survival rate of the species, with our present knowledge, shows a significant difference between first year (0.1696, 0.1297–0.219) and older birds (0.838, 0.773–0.887).
https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j ... 0090-6.pdf
An evaluation of colour-ringing recoveries of Black Storks Ciconia nigra in Hungary
Béla KALOCSA & Enikő Anna TAMÁS
Abstract: The colour-ringing of Black Storks has been carried out in Hungary since 1994. By 2004 we had ringed 497 Black Storks (including 13 in northern Croatia), except for three of them, in their nests, as pulli. Of the ringed birds, 48 individuals have been sighted alive at least once; by April 2004,14 were found dead. We analysed the data according to the place and time of occurrence. Post-breeding, first and second year, and older individuals have been recovered during spring and autumn migration, as well as in the breeding season. Apart from those ringed in Hungary, we observed ten individuals ringed in the Czech Republic, six Black Storks of Slovakian origin, one from Belgium, one from Serbia, one from Poland and two whose ringing place is unknown. Of the individuals ringed in Hungary, some were sighted abroad as well: 24 in Israel, one in Serbia, three in Croatia, and one in Germany.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... to_Hungary
ABOUT THE DISTRIBUTION AND BREEDING OF BLACK STORK (Ciconia nigra LINNAEUS 1758) IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE COUNTRY (DOLJ COUNTY, Romania)
RIDICHE Mirela Sabina, ILINOIU Adrian
Abstract. In our study, we have synthetized the data regarding the areas of distribution and nesting of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra LINNAEUS 1758) on the territory of Dolj county, in the south-west of the country. We render the nesting sites already mentioned in the existing scientific literature (Bistre , Z val, ROSPA Calafat-Ciuperceni-the Danube, ROSPA the Jiu-the Danube Confluence) and, based on our own observations made during April-September 2012 and April-July 2013, we highlight certain aspects regarding the nesting of a Black Stork pair in a new location, namely Murga i forest, which is located in the hilly region of Dolj county. During our research, we found two more sites, which provide good environmental conditions for the breeding of the black stork: Radovan and F rca -Plopu villages, also located in the higher region of the county. It is well-known the fact that the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) represents a valuable species with regard to biodiversity and it has a distribution and breeding area that is not sufficiently known. Thus, we consider that the data resulted from our research could highly contribute to a better understanding of the biology, the dynamics and the distribution of this species in our country.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/395a/0 ... 1569068464
Monitoring of the French Black Stork Population
Nicolas GENDRE (LPO France Birdlife), Jean-Jacques BOUTTEAUX (ONF) and Frederic CHAPALAIN (LPO – Birdlife – CRBPO)
Black stork Ciconia nigra, is a heritage species reappeared in France in 1977. It has been the subject of several studies and monitoring programmes at national and regional level. The LPO France – ONF, in coordination with the banding programme, allows an annual national synthesis and a coordination of the different actors. The National Forestry Office (ONF) carries out specific actions to take into account the species in forest management. The majority (66%) of known Black Stork nests are located in public forests (state forests and communal forests) managed by the ONF. In 2017, the LPO France - ONF coordination became aware of 55 nests occupied in France. Those frequented sites without follow-up at the beginning of the season are not counted. As 100% of the nests have not been discovered, it is reasonable to estimate the French breeding population are about 70 pairs (60-80 pairs) in 2017. Breeding pairs of Black Stork are mainly located in the North-eastern part of France.
http://forestiersdumonde.org/wp-content ... t-Book.pdf
Trend of Black Stork Ciconia nigra Population in Spain
L.S CANO ALONSO1,2 and J.L. TELLERÍA1
1 Department of Zoology and Physical Antropology, Faculty of Biology Sciences, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2 IUCN SSC Stork, Ibis and Spoonbill Specialist Group. Rue Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra breeds throughout the Palaearctic and includes populations in the southern tip of Africa. The European breeding population is composed of one large population that ranges from Russia to France and from Baltic countries to Greece and Italy, with one small population in the Iberian Peninsula, geographically isolated at the western corner of the Palaearctic. This study updates the current size and geographical distribution of the breeding population of Black Stork in Spain (2017 breeding season) based on number of active breeding pairs present on nest at the beginning of the breeding season that has been reported directly by regions and experts, and offer additional interpretation of the results on the Breeding Population Census 2017 published by SEO/BirdLife. The current population size and distribution is compared with the population data obtained in 2002 (one generation for this species), using the same criteria. In 2017, the number of active breeding pairs was less than 2002, but there is not a statistically significant difference between periods. The geographical distribution of the species during the breeding period has not changed either. This shows a stabilization of the breeding population of the Black Stork in Spain after two decades of increase. This information should be taken in account to review the conservation status of the small Iberian population.
http://forestiersdumonde.org/wp-content ... t-Book.pdf
The breeding of Black Stork in Italy in 2018
Massimo Brunelli, Lucio Bordignon, Matteo Caldarella, Enzo Cripezzi, Maurizio Fraissinet, Egidio Mallia, Maurizio Marrese, Nicola Norante, Salvatore Urso, Bruno Vaschetti, Gabriella Vaschetti & Matteo Visceglia
In 2018 the annual monitoring of the Italian population of Black Stork recorded the presence of 20 territorial pairs with 45 fledged juveniles
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ma ... O-2018.pdf
The breeding population of Black Stork Ciconia nigra in the Iberian Peninsula
Luis Santiago CANO ALONSO, Cláudia FRANCO, Carlos PACHECO, Susana REIS, Gonçalo ROSA4 & Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA
Abstract: The Iberian Peninsula is situated in the western extreme of Europe, and it is the limit of the Black Stork distribution of the western Palaearctic. The Black Stork in Iberia occupies the southwestern quadrant of the Peninsula in both Portugal and Spain, and is geographically separated from the population in Central and Eastern Europe. In the early nineties, the population was estimated at 230-270 pairs (European Birds Population: estimates and trends). We compiled recent data collected between 1995 and 2002 in a national (Portugal: 1995- 1997) and regional (Spain: 1996-2002) census and surveyed the population of 405-483 pairs (83 confirmed and 13 possible pairs in Portugal and 322 confirmed and 65 possible pairs in Spain). However, the census effort was unequal between all areas and we suspect that the value might be slightly underestimated. The Iberian population represents between 4% and 7% of the European and about half of the European Union breeding population. The increase in the estimates since the early nineties is certainly a result of better coverage and census efforts, but there is some evidence of a small increase in the population. There is apparent stability in the number of pairs in the core area and an expansion in the edge of the distribution. Most nests are placed on rocks (69%) in both riverine and mountain cliffs and the remaining (31%) are in trees, mainly Cork Oak and pines. Finally, we present current threats, limiting factors and conservation measures in both Portugal and Spain.
https://www.ucm.es/data/cont/media/www/ ... a_7_15.pdf
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra in Bavaria - history of expansion, distribution and recent status
Summary: During the late 19th Century the population of the Black Stork in Central Europe declined dramatically; the species disappeared in Bavaria in the late nineties. In 1947 the first breeding record in the Upper Palatinate marked a slow expansion from eastern Europe into Central Europe. At first, the species established small distribution patches 300-350 km outside its former breeding ränge and filled the intermediate area by a slow but continuous expansion of its ränge within the next 30-40 years. Presently, the breeding population in Bavaria consists of about 50 pairs. Most of them breed in the lower hills and woodlands in the eastern and north-eastern part of Bavaria. Presumable reasons for this ongoing expansion into Central Europe are discussed.
https://www.zobodat.at/stable/pdf/Anzei ... 3-0104.pdf
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra in Calabria:
first confirmed nesting in the province of Cosenza (Calabria, southern Italy)
Pierpaolo Storino, Giuseppe Rocca & Salvatore Urso
Abstract: In Calabria the Black Stork Ciconia nigra breeds only in the central Ionian sectors of the Region (i.e. “Alto Crotonese” area of the province of Crotone), while in the province of Cosenza single individuals or small feeding aggregations are mainly observed during migration. During the 2018 breeding season, we found the first C. nigra nesting on rocky areas in a small river valley of this provincial area. Extending future investigations to a wider area, we could more accurately quantify the population trend of the species, the number of nesting pairs and their distribution at regional scale.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pi ... OSENZA.pdf
Breeding population of Black Stork, Ciconia nigra, in Italy between 1994 and 2016
Maurizio Fraissinet, Lucio Bordignon, Massimo Brunelli, Matteo
Caldarella, Enzo Cripezzi, Stefano Giustino, Egidio Mallia, Maurizio
Marrese, Nicola Norante, Salvatore Urso, Matteo Visceglia
Abstract: The Black Stork Ciconia nigra, following an expansion on European scale, started breeding in Italy in 1994 with one pair in the Piedmont Region and one in the Calabria Region. Since then, the breeding pairs established in Italy have progressively increased up to 18 in 2016, and they are currently in Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria. However, the number of breeding pairs could be higher than 20, as indicated by records and observations of adults and juveniles, during the breeding period in potentially suitable nesting areas. Despite the low population density in Italy, the trend in the breeding population in Northwest and in Southern Central regions seems to show a slight and high increase respectively. Productivity, breeding success and fledging rate have been considered and analysed. A difference between the two macro areas has been found in the choice of nesting sites, which is on trees for Northwest couples, and cliffs for Southern Central couples. It is necessary to further explore the reason why the small Northwest population does not show any increase and range expansion compared to the Southern Central one.
https://sisn.pagepress.org/index.php/ri ... e/view/345
Download link: https://sisn.pagepress.org/index.php/ri ... d/345/465/
Breeding of Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in the Lainzer Tiergarten (Vienna) in 2016
The first breeding record of Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Vienna since 1943 is described in the present paper. The breeding site was the Lainzer Tiergarten, a wildlife reserve and important recreation area in the Vienna Woods at the western border of Vienna. The nesting tree was a huge oak (Quercus sp.) situated in a forest stand not open for public access and therefore protected from human disturbance.
Further breeding records of Black Stork Ciconia nigra in IRAN
ALI TURK QASHQAEI, PARHAM DIBADJ, SHAHROKH SADEGHPOUR, MEHDI JOMEHPOUR, JAVAD ASLANI, MAHMOOD KOLNEGARI, JAFAR GHOLAMI, HAMID AKEFI, EBRAHIM SAKHI, MOHAMMAD ALAVI, FARSHAD NEJAT, PANTEHA ARDANI, SETAREH BABAKI, REIHANEH SABERI PIROOZ, ASHKAN ASHARIUON & FARAHAM AHMADZADEH
Black Stork Ciconia nigra is one of three stork species recorded for Iran and is a rare winter and summer visitor. White Stork C. ciconia has good breeding populations in western Iran and the Woolly-necked Stork C. episcopus is a vagrant (Kaboli et al 2016, Scott & Adhami 2006, Porter & Aspinall 2010). Black Stork has been recorded in much of Iran (Figure 1, Mansoori 2008, Kaboli et al 2016, Porter & Aspinall 2010) though its breeding occurrence and migration routes there are poorly known (Cramp et al 1977). The first confirmed breeding record of Black Stork in Iran was in 1970 (Scott 2007). We present three further breeding records of Black Stork for Iran. During river surveys, breeding of Black Stork was recorded by us at the Karun (Khuzestan province, Plates 1–3), Qaranqu (East Azarbaijan) and Aliabad (Khorasan Razavi) rivers, southwest, northwest and northeast Iran respectively (Figure 1, Table 1). Nesting sites were on cliffs, 20–24 m above the water. There were two young and four white eggs in the Karun river nest (Plate 2), two young at the Qaranqu river nest and two young at the Aliabad river nest. Nests were of tree/ bush twigs and plastic bags.
You can download the full-text pdf here:
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... ra_in_Iran
Distribution and Population Change of Black Storks in CHINA
Junwei LI and Roller MAMING
Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 818 Beijing Road, Urumqi, 830011, Xinjiang, P. R. of China.
Black stork Ciconia nigra is an endangered species in the world, and the first-grade protected wild bird in China. At present, we know there are only 24,000 ~ 44,000 in the world, and there are about 1,900 ~3,600 in China. It is a breeding and seasonal migratory bird that is distributed almost all over the country. The main breeding grounds are northeast of the Yellow River Basin (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning), North China (Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong) and Northwest China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai). During the migration, it passes through Lop Nur of Xinjiang, Liao River Delta of Liaoning, Beidaihe of Hebei, Yellow River Beach of Huayuankou in Henan. The wintering areas are the Yangtze River Basin and South China and Southwest China (Yunnan, Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Hebei, Jiangxi, Beijing, Anhui, etc.). Although it is widely distributed, its number is scarce. Therefore, it has been listed as an endangered species by the Red Book of China's Endangered Animals (1998).
In the past 10 years, local researchers have continuously monitored the dynamics of populations of Black Stork throughout the country. The results show that: In the winters of 2004~2005, 2007~2008, and 2008~2009, the average number of overwintering Black Stork populations at the Napahai wetland in Yunnan province was 40, 129 and 182, respectively. From 2010 to 2012, the number in the national nature reserve of Heihe River Wetland in Gansu was 310, 380 and 430, respectively. It can be seen that the number is increasing year by year. From 2003 to 2009, the number of Black Storks in the Juma River of Shidu Nature Reserve in Beijing was 15~28 in winter. From 2004 to 2007, 30, 40, 70 and 130 black storks were recorded annually in Gahai lake region of Gansu. From 2005 to 2010, the quantity of Black Storks in the Yehe River of Hebei was monitored, it was found that the population in 2005 was the highest, with an average number of encounters of 8 per month and a maximum population of 14. In 2009, the population was the lowest, with an average number of encounters of 2 per month and a maximum of 7. This indicates that the number of Black Storks in the region showed a decreasing trend.
Xinjiang is the largest province in China, accounting for one sixth of the territory, with a large number of Black Storks. The Tarim Basin is the main breeding ground and distribution area of the largest population of Black Storks in China. During the winter, Black Storks in Xinjiang migrated to South Asia. From March to April, they flew back to the Tarim River, Urumqi, Irtysh River and Aibi Lake for breeding. They often nested in the shallow caves of mountain cliffs and riverside cliffs or on the tall poplar trees in the oasis wetlands, and had the habit of using the old nest. The number of the breeding population in Xinjiang was estimated to be 900~1300, and the number of migratory/passing population is 600~800, it is 1,500~2,100 totally.
We know around the world the number of Black Storks has declined significantly in recent years, it is necessary to understand the reason. Based on the long-term monitoring of Black Storks in different regions, the reasons for the decline of the number of Black Storks are mainly as follows: Habitat degradation, illegal hunting (bird nets, shotguns, poisons, etc.), polluted, human disturbance (tourism activity), electric shock and collision. In view of this, we strongly call on local people and government to pay full attention to the population dynamics of Black Storks, and recommend that relevant departments to actively publicize laws and regulations, and take effective measures to curb illegal hunting activities, and effectively increase people's awareness of protecting wetlands and cherishing wildlife resources. It is hoped to create a good living, breeding and habitat environment for the Black Storks by establishing nature reserves, protecting its habitat and reducing environmental pollution.
http://forestiersdumonde.org/wp-content ... t-Book.pdf
Recent records, review of wintering distribution, habitat choice and associations of Black Stork Ciconia nigra in India and Sri Lanka
Satish PANDE, Amit PAWASHE, Prashant DESHPANDE, Niranjan SANT, Raju KASAMBE & Anil MAHABAL
Abstract: Black Stork Ciconia nigra is an uncommon, wary, winter and passage migrant to India. The wintering population of Black Storks has reduced alarmingly. For Black storks that visit South Asia, India appears to be a major wintering ground. Until 1983, the wintering distribution of these storks is reported to be mainly from Northern India up to Sholapur district, in the Deccan. Our observations indicate that most wintering Black Storks in India are adults and only a few are juveniles. The earliest sightings are in December and the latest are in mid-April.
Our recent surveys and reported observations on the habitat choice of Black Storks in India show that they are found on natural lakes, artificial irrigation reservoirs, on river banks in agricultural or forest country, water bodies in forests, scrub, arid and semi-desert areas as well as on the sea coast.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ ... asambe.pdf
Birdwatching in India. The Black Stork.
Black storks summering in western Asia migrate to northern and northeastern India, ranging mainly from Punjab south to Karnataka, and Africa. They are occasional visitors to Sri Lanka. Those summering further east in eastern Russia and China winter mainly in southern China, and occasionally in Hong Kong, Myanmar, northern Thailand, and Laos.
They were first recorded in western Myanmar in 1998. ...
The population has declined in Iran due to draining of wetlands. East of the Ural Mountains, the black stork is patchily found in forested and mountainous areas up to 60°‒63° N across Siberia to the Pacific Ocean. South of Siberia, it breeds in Xinjiang, northwestern China, northern Mongolia south to the Altai Mountains, and northeastern China south to the vicinity of Beijing. ...
In the Korean Peninsula, the black stork is an uncommon summer visitor, no longer breeding in the south since 1966. Birds have been seen in the northeast but it is not known whether they breed there. Similarly, it has been seen in the summer in Afghanistan, but its breeding status is uncertain.
http://www.aladdin.st/bird-watching/ind ... stork.html
BREEDING STATUS OF THE BLACK STORK IN THE TRANSVAAL
Black Storks were censused in the Transvaal during 1976–81 at 40 breeding sites of which 38 were occupied during at least one of the survey years. The Transvaal Black Stork population was estimated to be 50–70 breeding pairs. The storks bred in winter on cliffs in the hilly parts of the Transvaal, laid 2–5 eggs ([xbar] = 3,37; n = 19) and reared 1–4 young ([xbar] = 2,27; n = 22). Productivity was 2,24 young/clutch laid (n = 37) or 1,38 young/pair-year (n = 60). Pairs failed to breed, on average, in 38% of the years, usually in years of below-average rainfall. In severe drought years as few as a quarter of the known pairs attempted to breed. Coincidentally, in drought years Black Stork numbers increased greatly in the eastern Lowveld (Kruger National Park) where permanent feeding habitat exists but breeding sites are scarce, and it is suggested that this area, and possibly the Limpopo River, provide important drought refuges for Transvaal Black Storks.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. ... 82.9634745
Ciconia nigra (Black stork) in South Africa
Distribution and habitat:
... There is a separate resident population in Zambia, Angola and southern Africa, bordering on Mozambique and Botswana. It can occupy almost any type of wetland, such as pans, rivers, flood plains, ponds, lagoons, dams, swamp forests, mangrove swamps, estuaries, tidal mudflats and patches of short grass close to water. ...
Predators of eggs and nestlings:
Aquila verreauxii (Verreauxs' eagle, Black eagle)
Polemaetus bellicosus (Martial eagle)
Papio ursinus (Chacma baboon)
Movements and migrations:
Resident and locally nomadic, moving in search of high-quality foraging habitats such as pools and estuaries.
http://www.biodiversityexplorer.info/bi ... _nigra.htm
BACK TO THE TABLE OF CONTENTS » viewtopic.php?p=685683#p685683