Habitat Analysis for the breeding Black Stork.
Forest management and conservation planning
Posted here: viewtopic.php?p=545852#p545852
Breeding and migration of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), with special regard to a Central European population and the impact of hydro-meteorological factors and wetland status
Tamás Enikő Anna
Doctoral (PhD) thesis, 2012
People have been altering the Earth‘s surface for thousands of years. Land use and cover changes, caused by increasing human habitation coupled with resource consumption and extensive landscape modification, adversely impact natural ecosystems at multiple spatial scales. Habitat loss has induced increased extinction risks for rare and highly specialised species, and particularly to migratory birds, as migratory birds and species with specific habitat requirements are considered to be the most sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances.
https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/bitstream ... sAllowed=y
Habitat Preferences of Black Stork Nesting
M.G. DMITRENOK and P.A. PAKUL
SPC of NAS of Belarus for Biological Resources Minsk, Belarus
Studies of Black Stork Ciconia nigra habitat preferences are important to actualize the legislation on protection of Black Stork. Additionally, it is useful to select sites for building artificial platforms for Black Stork. In 2016-2017 we conducted a description of a number of characteristics of forest and other factors.
We studied habitat preferences between real Black Stork nesting places and random places (theoretically good for nesting) in forest environments, used as a control group. The study was conducted in Belorussian Polesie (Brest region) on 3 plots: Middle Pripyat (Stolin district, anthropogenic pressure is low, old forest, plot area is 95 km2, monitoring plot with all nests known), L'va (Stolin district, human activity exists, less old forest, plot area is 240 km2, monitoring plot with all nests known), Belovezhskaya Pushcha (Kamenec district, anthropogenic pressure is just absent, some of nests are known). Broadleaf and small-leafed swampy forests are dominating in Middle Pripyat and Belovezhskaya Pushcha and on L'va plot pine forests are dominating.
All 3 plots are different in tree density and age. Meanwhile, Black Stork habitat does not differ between plots significantly. Thus we can identify optimal habitat conditions for Black Stork nesting, which are same in all plots. Optimal density was 29.89 ind/500 m2 (±11.04) (N=148), tree diameter varies from 21.85 mm (±13.68) in L'va plot (N=633) to 24.68 mm (±15.14) in Belovezhskaya Pushcha (N=747). Projective cover ratio of bushes was 20.06 % (±20%), 38.96% in control (±34%). The role of bushes is mixed. They hide nests from predators, but in some cases, if Black Stork nest is very low, it can prevent Black Storks to visit their nest.
http://forestiersdumonde.org/wp-content ... t-Book.pdf
An analysis of nesting data of Black Storks Ciconia nigra in the Gemenc region of the Danube-Drava National Park (1992-2003)
Béla KALOCSA & Enikő Anna TAMÁS
Abstract: Between 1992 and 2003 we registered 189 Black Stork nests in the Gemenc area. We cooperate with the regional Nature Protection Authority, and give them our data so that they can carry out legal protective measures. For the surroundings of the registered nests, we analyzed the available data. From our studies, we concluded that the forest type chosen for nesting proved to be the most significant factor, and forestry proved to be the biggest threat to nesting. Breeding success and other factors influencing the Black Stork population have also been investigated for 12 years.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/En ... 2-2003.pdf
Conservation Ecology of the Black Stork in Latvia
Dissertation for a PhD in Biology, Zoology. 2011
The black stork is a unique species in many ways. It has the most extensive breeding range of any species of storks (Hancock et al. 1992), as well as one of the widest distribution ranges among all bird species – the black stork has been recorded in more than 105 different countries (Strazds 1995). At the same time the black stork is not common in any country. At the regional level, it has been considered to be threatened in most of its range countries (Hancock et al. 1992). When Luthin (1987) was analysing the status of the world’s species of storks and the conservation priorities in this regard, he categorised the black stork as being globally vulnerable. Despite this, the bird has never been listed on any official list of globally threatened species. The main reason for this is the huge range which the bird covers, even though the overall size of the population only slightly exceeds the “small population” criterion (fewer than 10,000 mature individuals) of the IUCN/SSC (BirdLife International 2000). In Europe, the black stork is classified as rare, and it has been assigned the conservation priority rank of SPEC2 (BirdLife International 2004). ...
Black Stork is not only a bird...
(In French) 2003
Summary: It's not a secret anymore, the Black Stork has been breeding again in Belgium for fifteen years. Incontestably, this return was a major event in the world of Belgian ornithology, but was also an occasion that the RNOB (Réserves Naturelles et Ornithologiques de Belgique) association couldn't miss.
Worried about a constant loss of wetlands, the richest ecosystems of the Ardennes (south-east Belgium), and aware of the need to react quickly to preserve what was left (2/3 of wetlands have already disappeared in less than a century), this association started in 1989, with the help of "Hëllef fir d'Natur" of Luxembourg, a program centred on Black Storks.
Although the primary goal of this project wasn't the protection of the species, but the conservation of its feeding areas, and consequently of the biodiversity of those wetlands, the Black Stork was chosen to be the symbol of this project.
This species was clearly fit to be a symbol because it frequents wetlands to forage for food, it was back after a long absence unlike other threatened species, and finally, it is well known to a wide public.
After more than 10 years, this project allowed the creation of 37 natural reserves covering a surface of 355 hectares. Those sites, now preserved from drainage, spruce plantation, filling in..., are situated in Fauvillers, Vaux-sur-Sûre, Léglise, Bertogne, Bastogne, Houffalize, Gouvy, Vielsalm, and Burg-Reuland.
Acquisition of those plots was made possible through the financial help of the Région Wallonne, the European Community and private sponsorship. Most purchases were done before 1995 (end of European financing), but since then, 10 to 20 hectares are bought annually among those districts.
https://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bull ... -4_207.pdf
Applying Objective Data for a Multi Temporal Analysis of Habitat Suitability Indices to Monitor Biodiversity - A Case Study for the Example Key Species Red Kite (Milvus milvus) and Black Stork (Ciconia nigra)
The study describes the potential of various habitat suitability indices (HSI) using remotely sensed data (Landsat 5 and 7) and other mapped information in digital format for the characterization and monitoring of rare species habitats at the landscape level over time. The main focus was to develop a flexible and open system for habitat monitoring which allows a pragmatic overview of habitat development without field assessments, or with very limited field assessments. The potential HSI models for the exemplary key species Red Kite (Milvus milvus) and Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) are analysed with regard to their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions, and also with regard to the influences of individual attributes used as input for the models. The Moritzburg area located close to the city of Dresden, Germany was selected as the study site. It is characterised by a pronounced heterogeneity of landscape elements such as forests, meadows and lakes. The remote sensing data for the year 2000 were combined with ground data collected in the field campaign of the EU research project “MNTFR”. In addition, the database “Datenspeicher Wald” provided forest information for the year 1989 based on the forest inventories at the company level. Attributes, based on Natura 2000, such as food supply or nesting resources, were utilised as input for HSI models. The in situ data were combined with satellite data using a spatial statistic approach called kNN method for extending in situ attributes to the entire area of interest. Habitat suitability maps for both occasions (1989 and 2000) were compared for the individual key species. The methods described underlay the three HSI models tested in this study: a) The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) with binary attribute maps, b) The Enhanced Habitat Suitability Index (EHSI) applying binary attribute maps enhanced with fuzzy sets and c) The Habitat Suitability Index with Home Rage Aspect (HR-HSI) applying recalculated attribute maps with an activity radius of 200 m for each pixel. Each of these HSI models includes two levels of consideration: the attribute level and the life requisite level. The multiplicative approach with multiplicative combination of life requisites resulted in the original models HSI, the EHSI and HR-HSI and the summation approach with additive recombination of life requisites resulted in the models HSI+, EHSI+ and the HR-HSI+. While all six HSI models are able to detect habitat changes and to predict future habitat development, the EHSI model proved to be efficient to enhance purely binary data into discrete transition probabilities along suitable pixel with a decreasing probability within a distance of 150 m. The HR-HSI model proved to be useful in describing neighbourhood relations of habitat attributes. It offers a graduation of habitat potentials calculating continuous transition probabilities. The HR-HSI model is sensitive for areas of minimum 25 hectares indicating potential habitat loss or gain in the test site. The model approaches can support decision- and policy-making concerning landscape management, as well as enabling simulation of changing individual attributes.
The main obstacle to a successive implementation of the HSI models is a comprehensive description of factors driving habitat suitability that have hardly been presented in quantitative terms. Therefore an interdisciplinary knowledge transfer is recommended to realise the implementation of quantitative information of species specific requirements.
http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltex ... online.pdf
The Impact of Different Management Scenarios on the Availability of Potential Forest Habitats for Wildlife on a Landscape Level: The Case of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra
Jan Banaś, Stanisław Zięba, Małgorzata Bujoczek and Leszek Bujoczek
Abstract: This study analyzed the effects of various forest management scenarios on habitats of the black stork, which has very specific requirements: it needs extensive forest complexes with a significant proportion of old trees for nesting, and bodies of water for foraging. The relationship between different forest management scenarios and the presence of black storks was examined in a large forest complex (9641 ha of managed stands) surrounded by wetland areas. A simulation of forest development under three management regimes was performed for eighteen 10-year periods. Management scenarios differed in terms of the species composition of stands, rotation age, retention tree areas, and silvicultural treatments. The basic scenario was characterized by a species composition consistent with natural-type stands, but with higher proportions of Scots pine and oak, with rotation ages of 100 and 140 years, respectively, managed by the shelterwood system. The productive scenario featured monospecific stands with a dominance of Scots pine with a rotation age of 90 years, harvested by clearcutting. Finally, the long rotation scenario introduced mixed tree stands with a long rotation age (110 and 180 years for Scots pine and oak, respectively). As compared to the basic scenario, the total harvest volume was greater by 14.6% in the productive scenario and smaller by 16.2% in the long rotation scenario. The availability of habitats for black stork changed as a result of different species compositions and age structures of tree stands. A considerable decrease in rotation age (below 100 years) and the elimination of oak trees from stands in the productive scenario adversely affected potential habitats for black stork. On the other hand, the factors favorable to black stork habitats were a long rotation age, the presence of oak in stands, the application of shelterwood cutting, and the use of retention trees in the long rotation scenario. This scenario would probably also benefit other bird species legally protected under the European Union’s Birds Directive.
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NESTING HABITATS OF BLACK STORK (CICONIA NIGRA L.) IN UKRAINIAN FOREST ZONE (POLISSIA) REVEALED BY AN OVERLAY ANALYSIS IN GIS
Bokotey A., Strus Iu., Dzubenko N.
The study was based on an overlay analysis in GIS. Exact locations of 108 nest and layers representing forest types, prevailing tree species, forest age and productivity (bonitet class) were used. The analysis was performed on the level of individual nests (spatial join to point layer), and on the level of buffers with 500m radius around nests. To find the most preferable forest types for Black Stork we compared the frequency of distribution of forest types on the nesting territories with the frequency of distribution of those types in the study area and in 500m buffers around 108 random points. According to the results of our research, the spatial distribution of Black Stork nests to a great extant follows the general structure of forests in the region. We found some selectivity in case of wet forest types with prevalence of oak with pine, as well as with black alder, but the result is not statistically significant. The only statistically significant relation was found in case of forest age. Black Storks prefer old and mature forests. The most important trees for nesting were oak (53,3%) and pine (29,9%).
https://www.academia.edu/34909137/NESTI ... view-paper
Nest-site use by Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to fragmented forest cover: case study from Lithuania
Rimgaudas Treinys, Saulis Skuja, Danas Augutis, Darius Stončius
Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle are forest-dwelling species that nest in mature forests, thus are in conflict with the timber harvesting. No recent research has evaluated the demand for continuous forest cover around nest-trees of these species. is article analyses nest-site use by Black Stork and Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to ground cover, specifically comparing the nest-tree environment with availabilities in the forest landscape. Strong avoidance of field, low avoidance of shrubland (clear-cuts and forests up to 30 years of age) and preference of continuous forest cover (older than 30 years of age) are characteristic of the Black Stork nest-site use. Nest-sites of Lesser Spotted Eagle in relation to ground cover did not differ from availabilities in the forest landscape, except in the environment nearest to the nest-trees, where eagles preferred continuous forest cover and weakly avoided shrubland. We assume that the relatively low avoidance of shrubland by both species could be related with the present level of forest landscape fragmentation, ongoing adaptation to the fragmented forests, or the importance of a suitable nest-tree with only the immediate surrounding to provide protective cover. Some implications for conservation are discussed.
http://www.gamtostyrimai.lt/uploads/pub ... c0a4da.pdf
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra between the Sió channel and the Drava river in the central Danube floodplain: transboundary monitoring and protection plan
Marko TUCAKOV, Béla KALOCSA, Tibor MIKUSKA, Anna Eniko TAMAS, Antun ŽULJEVIĆ, Boris ERG & Tamás DEME
Abstract: The largest and incomparable inland floodplain of the Danube extends 130 kilometres along its banks in the area where the borders of Hungary, Serbia and Croatia meet. Most of the area is protected: Gemenc and Beda-Karapancsa as a part of the Hungarian Danube- Drava National Park, Gornje Podunavlje as a Special Nature Reserve in Serbia, and Kopački Rit as a Nature Park in Croatia. Forest stands and a variety of water bodies (river branches, oxbows, marshy depressions, and carp fishponds) dominate over the site - the most valuable ones are preserved in a 52,500 ha large recent inundation area. However, the area is still under strong human pressure, being used for forestry, water management, hunting, agricultural and recreation purposes. The Black Stork, as a flagship species of the area, strongly bounds during its life cycle all habitats in this transboundary site. Its local distribution, numbers, breeding habits, movements, threatening factors, and its conservation needs have been studied by the authors in the International Black Stork Colour Ringing Program.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/En ... n-plan.pdf
Breeding density, spacing of nest-sites and breeding performance of black storks Ciconia nigra in Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park, north-eastern Greece
Olga ALEXANDROU, Dimitrios E. BAKALOUDIS, Malamati A. PAPAKOSTA and Christos G. VLACHOS
Abstract: Breeding densities and the breeding biology of the black stork Ciconia nigra were studied in Dadia – Lefkimi – Soufli Forest National Park, north-eastern Greece, during 2006–2008. One hundred and one breeding attempts were monitored during the 3-year study period. In total 271 fledglings were successfully raised during that period. Black storks arrived in the study area between the last days of February and mid- March. Mean fledging date was 16 July. An average of 3.26 fledglings per successful pair (n = 83) were produced. The mean nearest neighbour distance between occupied nests was 1.09 km (1SD: 0.94, n = 33). Nests containing fledglings were recorded as close as 228 m. The population density was calculated at 8.1 pairs/100 km2 for the whole study area. The steady increase of the black stork population in the study area during the last few decades is partially attributed to the intensification of agriculture at small scale, which has created ideal feeding grounds for the species. The establishment of shallow artificial ponds in grasslands or along streams within the protected area may improve the availability of food resources for the species.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Di ... 6ba35a.pdf
Can intensified forestry be responsible for changes in habitat usage by the forest-dwelling Black Stork?
Rimgaudas Treinys, Gintautas Mozgeris and Saulis Skuja
Abstract: Populations of the internationally protected Black Stork Ciconia nigra in the northern parts of the distribution range, located to the east of the Baltic Sea, have suffered decline over recent decades. Since early 1990s, however, logging intensity has increased. In this paper, considering a ten-year period from the mid-1990s, we ask: (a) Did changes occur in the habitat preferred by Black Stork in the decade? (b) did the decade of intensified forestry significantly change forest characteristics? and (c) could the intensified forestry explain any observed changes in the utilization of habitat by storks? We compared forest characteristics at the beginning and end of this period at 75 random points and compared the habitat at 75 nest sites occupied by the Black Stork in the mid-1990s and 75 occupied nest sites at the end of the 2000s. In the 0.7-km zones around the random points, the abundance of mature stands decreased between the mid-1990s and the end of the 2000s, as did the abundance of broadleaved trees, but black alders increased. Nevertheless, the age and composition of tree species within the stands around the random points remained similar. Some changes were noted though in the habitat around nests used by Black Storks during two periods, with the data indicating that the Black Storks tended to occupy sites of better habitat quality (e.g. with a higher density of hydrological network and old oak trees, older nest stands) at the end of the 2000s than in the mid-1990s. Our results, however, do not support the idea that intensified forestry over the short term induced changes in the habitat used by the Black Storks. It is possible that nesting Black Storks became concentrated into the prime habitat when population retracted and/or abandoned habitat where recently recovered by the White-tailed Eagle.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 016-1003-6
Population Trends and Multi-Scale Breeding Habitat Analysis for the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park, North-Eastern Greece
Konstantinos Poirazidis, Vasileios Bontzorlos
The aim of the study was to assess Black stork (Ciconia nigra) population trends and breeding habitat preferences in two habitat scales, in the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli (Dadia NP), in north-eastern Greece. Dadia NP is a renowned European biodiversity hot-spot (N 40° 59' to N 41° 15', E 26° 19' to E 26° 36').
The Black stork breeding population was monitored under the Systematic Raptor Monitoring Scheme (SRM), which was established in the area by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Greece.
Place and Duration of Study:
The study was conducted in Dadia NP with annual monitoring efforts from 2001 until 2006, and once again in 2012.
Methodology: Twenty-four vantage points and ten road transects were selected throughout the entire study area. All Black stork individuals were surveyed and mapped during five months (March to July), for each monitoring year. Nesting habitat was measured in two scales. To assess the microhabitat, nesting-trees and vegetation variables were measured in a circular area of 0.1 ha (radius 17.85 m) around each nest. For the macro-habitat scale, a total of ten environmental variables were analyzed to model habitat suitability. MaxEnt software was used using high spatial resolution satellite data for each monitoring year.
Black stork territories increased in Dadia NP from 24 pairs in 2001 to 33 pairs in 2012 demonstrating a total of 34.7% relative increase. According to Man Kendal tests, the species had a positive MK slope (1.7) which although not significant (tau = 0.69, P = 0.08), denoted a continuous increase. Increasing trends were corroborated by GAM models. The Black stork generally used large mature trees for nesting in sparse forests patches. The variable “elevation” demonstrated the most useful information for habitat modeling. During all monitoring years, Black stork showed a clear preference for the lowlands close to arable fields and wetlands which were used for foraging. Following the positive trend of Black stork population, the species’ suitable nesting habitat also extended from 48% in 2001 to 72% in 2012.
http://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/AR ... 6261/49252
GIS-based modelling to predict potential habitats for black stork (Ciconia nigra) in Sweden.
Abstract: The black stork (Ciconia nigra L.) was lost from the Swedish fauna in the 1950’s. An increased understanding of the need to save endangered species has led to restoration or preservation of populations through reintroductions. To have background information about a species’ habitat requirements is important for introduction programs. A habitat model can be used to predict the requirements of the species, and provide suggestions for areas suitable for reintroduction. In this study, a Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to create a model to identify suitable habitats for a potential reintroduction project of black stork in Sweden. The geographical extent in the analysis was limited to the former distribution range of black stork in the southern part of Sweden. My results indicate several suitable black stork habitats in all counties included in the analysis, except the Baltic Sea Island of Gotland. Seven counties contained more than 18 % suitable habitats in relation to the total area of each county. I suggest that these areas should be the primary target areas for black stork reintroduction to Sweden.
https://stud.epsilon.slu.se/7597/7/sorh ... 150205.pdf
Nesting of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to forest management
Raul Rosenvald, Asko Lõhmus
Abstract: Since 1957, 200 m zones around known nests of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) have been strictly protected in Estonia. Yet, the black stork population has recently suffered a large decline, which coincides with the intensification of forestry. To check whether higher disturbance levels could have caused the decline, we related the extent of forestry operations and mature forest near black stork nests to their occupancy, treating the increasing eagle population as a comparison. For both species, we studied 1 km zone around 38 nest sites and, for each nest site, around two random points 2 km away. The total annually cut and reforested area was used to quantify forestry activity, since this single variable explained most of the variability in the extent of different forestry operations. Management was significantly more extensive in the landscapes inhabited by black storks than those inhabited by white-tailed eagles, but the periods of nest occupancy and unoccupancy did not differ significantly in either species. There were neither species-specific nor occupancy-related differences in the total area of mature forest. We conclude that, compared with the white-tailed eagle, the black stork is more vulnerable to disturbance and landscape change due to forestry operations, but these processes are probably not responsible for the recent decline of the stork population.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 2703002160
Have recent changes in forest structure reduced the Estonian black stork Ciconia nigra population?
Asko Lõhmus, Urmas Sellis, Raul Rosenvald
Abstract: The black stork Ciconia nigra is listed as a focal species for guiding forest management in Estonia, where forestry has recently intensified and the stork population has suffered a twofold decline. We explored a possible link between the decline of the population and man-induced changes in forest structure, by analysing nesting of the species in relation to forest cover, edge effects and stand structure. Although the storks had distinct habitat preferences (old remote stands near rivers and a certain distance far from ecotones in well-forested landscapes), these were hardly reflected in site re-occupancy and productivity. Therefore, changes in forest structure are probably not responsible for the population decline, although preferences for specific forest environments may limit the range of potential nest sites. The results indicated that edge avoidance cannot be considered a species-specific feature over large areas and clear habitat preferences are not necessarily related with the present success of a population. We also suggest that lists of focal species should be regularly updated and validated in the field.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 004-9667-5
Contributed by Ari19
Nest trees - a limiting factor for the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) population in Estonia
Asko LÕHMUS & Urmas SELLIS
ABSTRACT - To assess the role of nest trees as a limiting factor for the Black Stork population in Estonia, we have described 49 nest sites and have explored the availability of potential nest trees in randomly selected plots. Compared with the composition of neighbouring nest stands, the storks strongly preferred to nest on oaks and aspens, followed by pine, and avoided spruce. Our analysis shows that the disproportional use of tree species could be explained by their canopy structure, notably the opportunity to hold a large nest away from the main trunk. On average, the nest trees were 25.6 m high, 120 years old and had a 66-cm diameter at breast height. Different tree species became suitable at different ages. Similarly to the other Baltic countries, nest trees were older than nest stands, showing that older tree retention during forest management practices is important for the species. In a random landscape, 3.5% of forest land contained at least one tree suitable for nest building, but after considering also stand structure and location, only 0.3% of forest land could be listed as suitable. We conclude that the shortage of potential nest trees is severe enough to limit the Estonian Black Stork population, and that sylvicultural management for retaining or creating such trees in forested areas are by far under-used.
http://www.aves.be/fileadmin/Aves/Bulle ... 1-4_84.pdf
At the border of ecological change: status and nest sites of the Lithuanian Black Stork Ciconia nigra population 2000–2006 versus 1976–1992
Rimgaudas Treinys, Asko Lõhmus, Darius Stončius, Saulis Skuja, Eugenijus Drobelis, Bronius Šablevičius, Saulius Rumbutis, Deivis Dementavičius, Vladas Naruševičius, Antanas Petraška, Danas Augutis
Abstract: Recent trends in the European Black Stork Ciconia nigra population are geographically distinct: range expansion and adaptation to human activity dominate in western and central Europe, while declines—probably induced by landscape change—are reported in the east. We studied the large Lithuanian Black Stork population in the transition zone to explore whether, and how, the detrimental influences of recent Baltic landscape changes are balanced by the West European tendency of behavioural adaptation to human activity. Based on monitoring in sample plots, the current population was estimated at 650–950 pairs, indicating a significant decrease (possibly over 20%) during the last two decades. In comparison to the Latvian and Estonian populations, however, this decline is smaller, and the reproductive success remains at a high level [66% breeding success and 2.99 ± 0.97 (SD) fledglings per successful attempt, 2000–2006]; this north–south gradient suggests a climate-mediated impact of habitat degradation in the Baltic countries. The storks are also nesting closer to forest edges and in younger stands than 15–30 years ago, which has probably reduced the nest-tree limitation, as indicated by an increased use of large oaks. Thus, habitat degradation and adaptation seem to be taking place simultaneously in the Lithuanian Black Stork population, as was expected from its geographical location. In general, our study supports the view that, whenever possible, species conservation strategies and the use of indicator species should be geographically explicit.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 007-0220-7
The role of ponds as feeding habitat for an umbrella species:
best management practices for the black stork Ciconia nigra in Spain
Rubén Moreno-Opo, Mariana Fernandez-Olalla, Francisco Guil Angel Arredondo, Rafael Higuero, Manuel Martin, Carlos Soria and José Guzman
Abstract To establish recommendations for wetland management that promote wildlife diversity in Mediterranean habitats we examined the factors that determine feeding habitat selection by the black stork Ciconia nigra in ponds. The black stork is considered an umbrella species because it is threatened, requires large foraging ranges in priority areas, is selective in its choice of diet and nesting sites, and inhabits a characteristic biological community with endemic and threatened taxa. Eighty-five ponds were monitored in central and western Spain to detect the stork feeding. At the same time, pond variables that could affect black stork feeding preferences were periodically evaluated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyse principal components obtained from groups of factors related to structural, location and ecological conditions. The black stork selects ponds distant from roads, with a large surface area, high water level, shallow shores, low turbidity, few traces of wild ungulates on the shores, a high diversity of fish and amphibian species, and a vegetated perimeter, in flat and open areas. Potential factors affecting feeding behaviour are discussed. We suggest measures for pond construction and management that could favour this species in particular and biodiversity in general in the Mediterranean environment.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fr ... eab45d.pdf
THE BLACK STORK CICONIA NIGRA IN NORTHERN ITALY:
WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES DOES THIS SPECIES NEED TO NEST?
Claudia FONTANETO, Gianluca FERRETTI, Lucio BORDIGNON & Diego FONTANETO
Conservation ecology and landscape planning usually can deal with many data from the community level (e.g., Beja & Alcazar, 2003; Benayas & de la Montana, 2003; Kitahara & Watanabe, 2003) or using well known focal and umbrella species (e.g., Coppolillo et al., 2004; Roberge & Angelstam 2004) but in case of endangered and/or rare species, only few data could be available (e.g., Bearzi et al., 2003; Lovett-Doust et al., 2003; Stringer et al., 2003). In addition, in recent cases of arrival or spontaneous recolonization of new areas, species ecological requirements may be different from those known in other areas.
This is the case of the Black Stork, Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758), which became extinct as an Italian nesting bird, probably during the Middle Age, and naturally re-estab- lished successful breeding pairs since 1994 (Bordignon, 1995, 1999). In their analysis of the potentiality of the Italian area for all vertebrate species, Boitani et al. (2002) based their work on the Black Stork mainly on two variables: presence of (1) wet lowland woods with ponds where to feed and (2) old and large trees where to nest, as it was known from the lit- erature but from other countries. These assumptions gave a high potential for this species to areas which are not used; moreover, the actually used area in Northern Italy resulted as not really potential, i.e. pointing to a discrepancy between previous knowledge and actual requirements. It is of pivotal importance to know which environmental features the Black Stork prefers, as it is one of the species which can drive the institution of Areas of Special Protections, by the EEC directives “Birds” 79/409/CEE and 91/244/CEE. The use of money for environment conservation in relation to this species has to be based on its actual require- ments. Hence, the aim of this work is to clarify the environmental features which are actu- ally needed by this charismatic species in its nesting area in Northern Italy. Moreover, due to the lack of available data on this rare species, we used resampling statistics (Manly, 1997), which can be a useful way to bypass the problem of few data in case of need of indi- cations for political decisions about endangered species.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0962/e ... 1569068464
Breeding Habitat of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra in Lithuania:
Implications for Conservation Planning
RIMGAUDAS TREINYS, DARIUS STONÈIUS, DANAS AUGUTIS AND SAULIS SKUJA
Abstract: A significant part of the European Black Stork population breeds in Lithuania. However, the preferences by this species for macrohabitat and microhabitat features have not been analysed statistically until now. In this study, we analyzed field material collected in the last 8 years with the aim of establishing: 1) which habitat characteristics are preferred by the breeding Black Stork at macrohabitat and microhabitat scales and 2) which habitat features should be considered in the planning of Special Protected Areas for the Natura 2000 network aimed at protecting the species and the selection of set aside areas under the sustainable forestry schemes. At the macrohabitat scale Black Stork significantly preferred only dense hydrographical network. Preference for older, productive stands with greater share of broadleaved trees, nesting in forest interior and avoidance of proximity to water bodies and stands with grey alder are the most characteristic features of Black Stork microhabitat in Lithuania. A list of criteria to be used in selection of forest stands potentially suitable for Black Stork nesting was developed.
https://www.balticforestry.mi.lt/bf/PDF ... 033_40.pdf
Contributed by Ari19
Factors affecting the nest site selection of the black stork, Ciconia nigra in the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park, north-eastern Greece
Christos G. VLACHOS1, Dimitrios E. BAKALOUDIS, Olga G. ALEXANDROU, Vasileios A. BONTZORLOS and Malamati A. PAPAKOSTA
Abstract: Nest site preference of black stork nesting in the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park, northeastern Greece was studied through the 2003 - 2004 field seasons. Seventeen nest- trees and their surroundings (0.1 ha circular plot centered at nest-tree) were described and compared to the characteristics of the same number of paired, randomly selected plots. Black storks usually nested in old pines, on branches at a mean distance 1.5 m from the trunk or against the trunk. Nest sites were located at slopes significantly steeper and significantly closer to small streams compared to random plots. The total tree density at nest sites was significantly lower and the mean canopy closure immediately adjacent to black stork nest trees was also significantly lower compared to that adjacent to the randomly selected trees. Nest sites had lower tree basal area than randomly selected sites, suggesting that the less wood volume sites were preferred for nesting by black storks in the study area.
http://www.academia.edu/download/320831 ... _stork.pdf
The role of forest reserves in the protection of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra in central Poland
Abstract: The black stork Ciconia nigra in central Poland (Łódź voivodship) increased from about 3 breeding pairs in the 1940s to 59 pairs in 2003. The density of the BS was 0.3 pairs per 100 km2 of the total study area in 2003, 1.6 pairs per 100 km2 of forested area and 3.3 pairs per 100 km2 of forests older than 60 years. Eleven pairs of black storks built their nests within the boundaries of the forest reserves, 34 pairs had nests outside the forest reserves, and six pairs had one nest inside and one nest outside the reserves. Thus, the black stork shows a strong tendency to build nests in the forest reserves. The greatest increase in the number of breeding pairs in central Poland was recorded in the 1970s. At that time, most of the forest reserves were already established, making growth in the number of pairs possible. Forest reserves protect old-growth stands, which provide breeding trees for the storks. In addition, forest reserves serve as refuges from human encroachment and are thus of crucial importance for long-term protection of the breeding sites of the black stork.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... ral_Poland
Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) Technologies in Identification of Potential Nesting Habitats of Black Stork (Ciconia Nigra)
Danas Augutis & Stanislovas Sinkevičius
Abstract: The article analyses data on the negative or positive impact of independent abiotic/biotic (including anthropogenic) factors on the selection of breeding habitats and specific nesting sites by Black Stork (Ciconia nigra). Based on the analysis of environmental data for particular nesting sites of Black Stork, the modelling of suitable nesting areas was performed in forested territories – in the Giedraičiai and Glitiškės forest districts. A detailed assessment of suitable nesting areas for Black Stork, with the highest likelihood of the species’ breeding, was made with the help of GIS and local envirospace modelling. Eventually, a further extrapolation of generalised research results to much larger territories on the scale of the entire country or even region is possible.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. ... 5.10512603
Breeding Productivity in Relation to Nesting Substrate and Nest Site Accessibility to Humans in the Black Stork Ciconia Nigra
Luis Santiago Cano-Alonso, José Luis Tellería
Abstract: The black stork Ciconia nigra is a threatened tree-nesting species in Europe. The relatively poorly studied and isolated Iberian population is unusual in Europe in that the majority of known pairs are cliff-nesting. This permits the analysis of productivity differences in relation to nesting substrate in different subpopulations, comparing not only the mean number of fledged chicks/nest between cliff-nesting and tree-nesting pairs but also considering whether the nests are located in restricted- or open-access areas. The results reveal that nesting substrate does not determine differences in productivity. Only those cliff-nesting pairs that breed in open-access areas have significantly lower productivity than pairs that breed elsewhere. Therefore, whether or not black storks nest on cliffs and on trees should not have a relevant effect per se on the productivity of the species but such an effect may arise in relation to the degree of human access to the cliff-nesting sites. Further in-depth research is needed about the exact causes of lower productivity in pairs that nest on cliffs located in open-access areas.
https://bioone.org/journals/Ardeola/vol ... .357.short
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jo ... 7dbc05.pdf
Satellite tracking of breeding black storks Ciconia nigra: new incomes for spatial conservation issues
Frédéric Jiguet, Stéphane Villarubias
Abstract: Satellite tracking of black storks was used to estimate home range sizes and to study habitat selection during the breeding season. Breeding and non-breeding adults foraged over very large areas (ca. 54 000 ha for 12 territories), preferentially in woodlands with high number of river sources, mirroring the species needs for high quality water resource. Rearing and post-fledging ranges of breeding partners largely overlapped. Home ranges of non-breeding adults largely overlapped ranges of breeding birds, so that assessing home range size of breeding pairs from observed densities is not reliable. Protection and management of breeding and feeding habitats appear to be the most important conservation measures to be considered. This study allowed to evaluate how large these protected areas should be, and which habitat types they should encompass. Conservation measures for the species in western Europe should include protection of very large forest areas and also focus on managing river networks to ensure a high water quality as far as 20 km away from nests.
http://www.tmd.ac.jp/artsci/biol/textbi ... lStork.pdf
May sympatric Lesser Spotted Eagles and Black Storks compete for nesting sites in spatially varying environments?
Saulis Skuja, Gintautas Mozgeris, Rimgaudas Treinys
Vol 25 No 1 (2019): Baltic Forestry
Sympatric species are likely to compete with one another unless there is a low degree of overlap in their resource use, in which case these species are able to coexist. Disclosing of biotic interactions between sympatric species is important from both theoretical and practical perspectives, especially when the species are of conservation concern. However, environmental heterogeneity may introduce variation in the intensity of biotic interactions due to differential a varying species responses to the environmental gradient. In this study, we analysed the overlap in nesting sites between the internationally protected, mature, forest-dwelling Lesser Spotted Eagle Clanga pomarina and the Black Stork Ciconia nigra. The importance of landscape heterogeneity for habitat segregation between these species was also assessed. The nesting sites of 123 pairs of Lesser Spotted Eagles and 78 pairs of Black Storks, located across different landscapes of the Central, Central-Eastern and Eastern Lithuanian ecoregions were described.
A series of discriminant analyses were performed to explore the pattern of habitat differentiation between species nesting in the above-mentioned regions. The habitat differentiation was estimated by niche overlap values (range 0-1, with a value 0.6 suggested to be the threshold between coexistence and competition). Comparison of nesting sites of mature forest-dwellers resulted in the niche overlap values for Central, Central-Eastern and Eastern regions being 0.5, 0.63 and 0.55, respectively. These results indicated relatively high niche overdispersion between nesting sites occupied by eagles and storks. Different variables and/or their combinations resulted in habitat differences in each ecoregion. Our data indicate that biotic interaction between species is mediated by environmental heterogeneity. Although our data tend to support the coexistence of the Black Stork and the Lesser Spotted Eagle, in certain regions these mature, forest-dwelling predators may use similar habitats and compete for prime sites under specific landscape structures. We, therefore, propose the necessity of the importance of a spatially-segregated estimation on biotic interactions when developing conservation programmes and allocating conservation actions within the target region.
https://www.balticforestry.mi.lt/ojs/in ... oad/134/59
Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) – Hungary
Prepared by Katrina Abhold
Summary: The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is a waterbird species that breeds in Europe, with most of its population migrating to Africa in winter. Although it is scarce, its threat status is considered to be Least Concern both globally and within Europe, as its population has been increasing. It predominantly feeds in wetlands, but requires old, undisturbed and open forests with old trees with large canopies for nesting. The main pressures and threats to the species are human-induced habitat degradation caused by deforestation, the rapid development of industry and farming, as well as the construction of dams and drainage of lakes for hydroelectric power production and irrigation. The species is also highly sensitive to human disturbances and will abandon its nests due to the presence of foresters and hunters. The principal conservation measures that have increased the Black Stork’s population have included the restoration of wetland and nesting habitats and the construction of artificial pools for feeding.
LIFE projects, such as the ‘Conservation of endangered bird species populations in natural habitats of the Danube inland delta’, have helped restore such areas and raised awareness of the species and its needs with local communities.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q ... 7CVKj-7poB
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