Historical Sources & Eagle Tales

A White-tailed Eagle Database Project

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Re: Historical Sources & Eagle Tales

Post by maertha » November 4th, 2010, 8:11 pm

19.The Story of the last British White-tailed Eagle, 20th century

(It was a rare albino specimen.)

Find the story at Chapter XIII: Territory; pages 181-183, available at Google books (go to: Google/Books, search for: Animal Mind)

See a white specimen: “Aquila alba” (1790), Museum of Natural History in Vienna
Page 20 (pdf document page 2): http://www.europeanraptors.org/document ... 9-0028.pdf

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Post by maertha » November 25th, 2010, 10:09 pm

20.White-tailed Eagles, UK, end of the 18th/early 19th century

White-tailed Eagles mentioned at:
Shropshire and Epping Forest (1792)
New Forest
Lyndhurst
Mendip hills, Somersetshire (1802)
Ireland
Scotland

Ornithological Dictionary of british birds, Colonel G. Montagu. London, 1831

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Post by maertha » November 25th, 2010, 10:12 pm

21.White-tailed Eagles in Europe, early 19th century

“The White-tailed Eagle is found over all the continent of Europe, principally near the sea-coast and borders of extensive lakes. This species is more common in Britain than the Golden Eagle; and although it is most usually found in the mountainous and rocky parts of the island, many instances are recorded of its appearance in the southern counties during winter, being attracted in that direction, possibly, by the flocks of geese that are driven by the severity of the weather towards the southern rivers. I shall mention only such instances of its capture as have fallen under my own observation.

A specimen was shot on the Thames at Weybridge, in Surry, in Lord Portmore's park some years since; it had alighted on one of the trees in the park, so near the house that it was shot from one of the windows. The mansion alluded to has since been pulled down, and the whole place, occupying one of the loveliest spots upon the river, is going to decay.

Another individual which had been taken alive in a trap in Suffolk, was for some time in the possession of John Spicer, Esq. of Esher Place, Surry, from whence it was transferred to Ashley Park, the seat of Sir Henry Fletcher, which bird I have had frequent opportunities of observing. Another specimen, a young female, was shot in Suffolk in the winter of 1831, the dimensions of which will be subjoined. (…)

It is believed that many individuals of the White-tailed Eagle migrate to and from different parts of Europe, according to the season, and are observed to be much more plentiful in Britain in winter than at other times. (…) It is indigenous in England; and the localities chosen for its nest are precipitous cliffs near the sea-coast, or in the vicinity of lakes. The eggs are two in number.”

Mentioned: A White-tailed Eagle in Haarlem, Holland, late 18th or early 19th century


Coloured illustrations of British birds and their eggs, by Henry Leonard Meyer, London, 1842, pages 12-18

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Post by maertha » November 26th, 2010, 10:11 pm

22.About dangerous prey, Shetland, mid-19th century

"The gigantic fish called halibut, which is a large species of turbot, often basks, as do other flat fish, near the surfice of the sea. An eagle has been observed to pounce upon him, and bury his powerful talons in the fish's back. The latter, naturally surprised at an attack so audacious, flounders of course, endeavouring to dive, and thus drown his adversary, or escape his clutches. It is not the habit of our eagle, however, to quit a hold he has once taken; the bravery, or pertinacity, if you will, of the king of birds forbids so tame a relinquishment of his purpose, and so he spreads his mighty wings to balance himself, or to present a greater resistance to the halibut's efforts to sink him, or even, perchance, in expectation of being able to carry him off bodily, as doubtless was his first intention.

If the wind or tide be towards land, the eagle's wings act also as sails, and he floats majestically in his floundery vessel till it grounds with its passenger, and then, sometimes a mightier than both—in his appliances, if not in his physical strength—interferes, and makes them his prey.

This was actually done by an elderly gentleman of the last generation, who happened to be taking his evening walk, and saw the whole occurrence. Hastening to the water's edge, with his stout walking-stick he despatched both eagle and halibut, as, exhausted, but still struggling, they were wafted to the shore. Quite recently a pair of similar incongruous companions, thus murderously associated, have been found both dead on the sea-beach.

Corroborative of these daring and fatal exploits of the sea-eagle, we may also mention the following wellauthenticated fact . In Iceland the seal often pursues the salmon up the rivers, as it is well known to do likewise in some of the Scottish rivers, although less frequently since the introduction of the all-disturbing steam navigation. In the frost-bound regions of Iceland—his natural courage rendered desperate by the absence of other prey—the eagle has been sometimes seen to dart down on the seal while it was quietly reposing on a rock ; upon which the latter promptly plunges in its native element, where the erne soon finds he has caught a Tartar, and is speedily dragged downwards and drowned."

The birds of Shetland. By a resident. In: Chambers's Edinburgh journal, William Chambers,Robert Chambers, Vol. 11-12, No. 299, September 22th 1849, page 181/182,



Occurences like the one above are mentioned in different sources about White-tailed Eagles. See more: A White-tailed Eagle catches a big fish and reaches the shore swimming. 3:10-4:20
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pso9gk6c ... re=related

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Post by maertha » December 23rd, 2010, 10:03 pm

23.White-tailed Eagles were hunted for their remiges

“It is well-known, for instance, that white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) were regularly hunted for their remiges which were used in arrow construction (e.g. Paulsen 2000).”

Sources:
-Archaeozoological records and distribution history of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in Central Europe, F. E. Zachos, U. Schmölcke
-Paulsen H. (2000) Pfeil und Bogen in Haithabu. Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 33. Wacholtz, Neumünster, pp 93–143
(Arrow and bow at Haithabu. Reports on excavations at Haithabu)

Information on Haithabu/Hedeby:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedeby

See also: Animals in ritual and economy in a Roman frontier community: excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij, by Maaike Groot, Amsterdam University Press, 2009, page 67 (available at Google Books)

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Post by maertha » December 23rd, 2010, 10:07 pm

24.Bird remains of Medieval and Post-Medieval coastal sites at the Southern Baltic Sea, Poland

MAKOWIECKI D., GOTFREDSEN A. B. 2002. Bird remains of Medieval and Post-Medieval coastal sites at the Southern Baltic Sea, Poland. In: Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group Kraków, Poland, 11-15 September, 2001. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 45(special issue): 65-84.

“This paper presents results of a project on “Archaeozoological research of fish and birds from Polish Baltic sites in medieval and postmedieval periods”, performed in the Copenhagen Biosystematics Centre of the Zoological Museum, supported by the European Commission’s Human Potential Programme (“Transnational Access to Major Research Infrastructures”).“

White-tailed Eagles mentioned
:chick: Tables, pictures, maps

http://www.isez.pan.krakow.pl/journals/ ... /45/05.pdf

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Post by maertha » January 21st, 2011, 10:44 pm

25.White-tailed Eagle persecution in England before 1852

"Its great enemy is man, who destroys its nest, breaks its eggs, kills or carries off its young, traps it in various ways, or by lying concealed in a covered pit or hut, shoots it as it feeds on the carcase laid out to attract it. Owing to the persecution to which it is thus subjected, it has been almost entirely extirpated in England.

In the southern division of Scotland, or from the borders to the Friths of Forth and Clyde, it is probable that half a dozen pairs are not now to be found. In the middle division, it is still rare; but in the northern, and especially in the Hebrides, it is in many places not uncommon. Stragglers, however, especially young birds, are now and then killed in all parts of the country, even in the south of England; and, although its numbers have thus been reduced, it is probable that it will never be entirely extirpated.

It does not appear to be necessarily or essentially maritime, but rather to frequent the sea-coast because of the facility of finding secure resting-places on the cliffs ; for it is met with in the interior, even in Braemar and about Lochlagan. But in such places it is less frequent than the Golden Eagle, which, on the other hand, also breeds on maritime rocks. In Orkney, as I am informed by Mr Forbes of South Ronaldshay, it breeds on several of the headlands ; and Dr. Laurence Edmondston has favoured me with the following account of it as observed in Shetland.

“This, I believe, is the only species of Eagle that breeds in Shetland, where however it is rare. Perhaps the whole of the islands could not produce more than a dozen of pairs. It is generally, unless at the breeding season, found in single individuals. It feeds chiefly on rabbits and sea birds, especially the young of the larger gulls; but it does not neglect carrion, if it is to be had, in lonely places, and before it becomes very putrescent. It is not very destructive to sheep. In spring, it often sweeps along the cottages very early in the morning, to the fatal experience of the poultry. During summer and harvest, large flocks of geese pasture among the most retired hills, without any protection, and in the vicinity of its favourite haunts, yet its depredations on them are rare. This abstemiousness must not, however, be taken for amiable self-denial, but for a mast uneagle-like pusillanimity. The wing of the gander, which not unfrequently is uplifted in defence of his young, has a moral if not a physical power, which the robber Erne seems to quail under.”"

Source: Haliaeetus Albicilla. The White-tailed Sea Eagle, pp.230-231. In: A History of British Birds, Indigenous and Migratory, Vol III.: Reptatores, creepers; scansores, climbers, cuculinae, raptores (…). By William MacGillivray, London 1852. Find the whole article: pp. 221-236

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Post by maertha » March 6th, 2011, 11:23 am

26.White-tailed Eagles in Middle Franconia (Bavarian Region), Germany 1864

The white-tailed eagle, almost immature birds of the species, migrates along the course of the rivers Isar, Lech and Danube into the Middle Franconian regions. He is more common here than the golden eagle, with which hunters him often confuse.

An adult male specimen with yellow beak and white tail has been shot near Eichstädt. A beautiful adult female eagle was observed at the Dutzendteich (Dozen Pond) and near the village of Erlenstegen. It has been shot near Gerasmühle at Reichelsdorf. The stomach of this eagle was found to contain bones of a hare.

The gamekeeper E. Wich shot near Erlangen a young white-tailed eagle in 1835. Mr. Wich stood at the bridge over the river of Regnitz when he saw the raptor hunting wild ducks.

Other white-tailed eagles were killed near Weissenburg and Wassertrüdingen, at the latter city a young specimen on May 24th 1852.

Erlenstegen = since 1899 a part of the city of Nürnberg
Reichelsdorf = since 1922 a part of the city of Nürnberg
Map:
http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source= ... 902344&z=5

Source: Andreas Johannes Jäckel, Die Vögel Mittelfrankens. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der geographisch-statistischen Verbreitung der deutschen Vögel, S. 82. In: Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Nürnberg, Band 3, 1864

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Post by maertha » March 8th, 2012, 6:00 pm

27.Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals

Eugène Morin (Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada) and
Véronique Laroulandie (CNRS, PACEA, UMR 5199, Université Bordeaux, Talence, France)

Published: March 5, 2012

White-tailed Eagle: See Figure 2.

Source: PloS ONE
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0032856

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Post by maertha » February 14th, 2013, 6:31 pm

28.Eagles were important to Vikings. Denmark, February 2013

The country’s newest national park, Skjoldungelandet, is an archaeological hotspot that has been dubbed ‘the cradle of Denmark’.

Source: the Copenhagen post. By Jane Graham, February 11, 2013
http://cphpost.dk/culture/through-looki ... eisure-and

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Post by maertha » August 1st, 2014, 6:16 pm

29.Archaeozoological evidence for the White-tailed Eagle in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany)

Archäozoologischer Nachweis des Seeadlers (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Rheinland-Pfalz
Christian Meyer & Peter Haupt, Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv 01/2004; 42:15-20

PDF available at academia.edu http://www.academia.edu/649249/Archaozo ... land-Pfalz

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Post by maertha » December 23rd, 2014, 10:03 pm

30.Ireland’s Lost Birds

Reproduced with kind permission by Gordon D’Arcy from his book “Ireland’s Lost Birds” at http://www.mountshannoneagles.ie/?page_id=603

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Post by maertha » May 22nd, 2018, 9:47 pm

31.Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina. March 2015

Radovčić D, Sršen AO, Radovčić J, Frayer DW. Published: March 11, 2015
Source: PLoS ONE http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl ... ne.0119802


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