Avian Influenza H5N8/H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles 2016-2018

A White-tailed Eagle Database Project

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Avian Influenza H5N8/H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles 2016-2018

Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:03 pm

Avian Influenza H5N8/H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles 2016-2018

+++ Documented Cases of H5N8 and H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles +++ General Information on the Outbreak +++ Maps +++ Updates +++ Current News +++

Note:
“To date, no human infections with this Virus* have ever been reported world-wide and the risk of zoonotic transmission to the general public in EU/EEA countries is considered to be very low.” Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 18 November 2016 Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) in Europe *H5N8

"To date, no humans have been infected with the Dutch* H5N6 virus strain." Source: Wageningen University & Research, 30 January 2018 New type of bird flu called H5N6 discovered in the Netherlands in 2017-2018 *Dutch strain = The new European H5N6 subtype

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:08 pm

Fast Facts: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8)
  • Three types of influenza viruses exist: A, B and C
  • The avian influenza viruses belong to type A
  • Avian influenza (avian flu, bird flu) = a disease mainly of birds
  • There are two groups or categories: Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
  • LPAI can mutate into HPAI
  • Within these two groups there are different virus strains. The recent H5N8 strain causes highly pathogenic avian influenza
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) = high mortality rate in affected birds
  • In which European countries has H5N8 been detected since October 2016? Map: https://iadm.carto.com/me
  • Is it possible to distinguish whether raptors and other scavenging birds ate contaminated carrion or whether they were actually infected with H5N8? A report by the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) says yes. In the latter case a high virus load can be found in the respiratory tract (not in the gastrointestinal tract). (FLI: Hochpathogene Aviäre Influenza, FAQ, 08.12.2016. In German language)
Do you want more information?
See also: First report on isolation of avian influenza virus in a Bald eagle from the U.S. (Gloucester County, Virginia), March 2008:

“The genome sequences of this bald eagle isolate revealed a mixture of H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified a high degree of sequence similarity of all segments of these two subtypes to influenza A viruses circulating in wild waterfowl populations suggesting that the bald eagle possibly acquired the viruses while preying on infected wild birds. Our results indicate the need to study the raptor population in detail to gain better understanding of AIV ecology and epidemiology.
Source: Goyal, S. M., Jindal, N., Chander, Y., Ramakrishnan, M. A., Redig, P. T., & Sreevatsan, S. (2010). Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Virology Journal, 7, 174. http://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-174

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:12 pm

Avian Flu H5N8 Outbreak 2014/2015 vs. 2016/2017: What´s the Difference?
  • “The pattern of this year’s reports is different to previous years (2014/15) when this virus was first detected in Europe. The mortality events and the species of wild waterfowl affected might indicate possible changes in virus pathogenicity and/or changes in host specificity. However significant uncertainties exist at this early stage and other wild waterfowl species may be infected without mortality.” Samuel Wright, Jonathan Smith, Professor Ian Brown: Updated Outbreak Assessment number 2, 11th November 2016. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs and Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK
  • Map: Detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H5N8) in wild birds and poultry, Europe and neighbouring regions, November 2014 to February 2015 and October to December 2016. Source: ECDC http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArt ... leId=22663
  • According to the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), the level of mortality is unprecedented in German wild birds, poultry and zoo birds. 2 December 2016. Update, March 2017 https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... wl-plague/
  • Different avian species are susceptible to infection. Since November 2016 instances of disease in White-tailed Eagles have been reported from several European countries. See: White-Tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus Albicilla) Die-Off due to Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus, Subtype H5N8, in Germany. Krone, O.; Globig, A.; Ulrich, R.; Harder, T.; Schinköthe, J.; Herrmann, C.; Gerst, S.; Conraths, F.J.; Beer, M. Published 2018, July 11 (online) https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/201807.0200/v1
  • Update, January 2017: “A new reassortant influenza A(H5N8) virus is responsible for the recent HPAIV outbreak in Germany. The observed differences in pathogenicity for a broad spectrum of waterfowl compared with that of H5N8 viruses from 2014–2015 correlate with a new genome composition of these viruses.” Source: Pohlmann A, Starick E, Harder T, Höper D, Globig A, Staubach C, et al. Outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry caused by reassorted influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Apr. Read more https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/16-1949_article
  • Avian influenza overview 2016/2017: “The A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic occurred in 29 European countries in 2016/2017 and has been the largest ever recorded in the EU in terms of number of poultry outbreaks, geographical extent and number of dead wild birds.” European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, October 2017 https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications- ... ugust-2017
Avian Flu H5N6 Outbreak 2017/2018
  • According to the OIE, this new strain of the virus is a reassortant between H5N8 HPAI circulating in Europe and a European N6.
    More information: See 2 February 2018 viewtopic.php?f=46&t=863&start=40
  • The first case of H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles was detected in Ireland and has been confirmed by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine in a press release on 6 February 2018

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:19 pm

H5N8/H5N6 Risk for Humans
  • Risk Estimation, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 22 December 2016: "So far, no human cases of HPAIV H5N8 infection have been reported. Due to the genetic variability no reliable conclusions with regard to the virulence of the currently circulating pathogen are possible at present." https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... nza-hpaiv/
  • According to the World Health Organization, “human infection with the A(H5N8) virus cannot be excluded, although the likelihood is low, based on the limited information obtained to date. It should be noted that human infection with A(H5N6) of related clade 2.3.4.4 has already occurred.” WHO: Assessment of risk associated with influenza A(H5N8) virus, 17 November 2016
    http://www.who.int/influenza/human_anim ... 201611/en/
  • "There have been no reported human infections with this* particular genetic sublineage of H5N6." European Commission, March 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/anima ... fluenza_en
    *European
More information
WHO Public health advice
  • Avoid contact with any birds (poultry or wild birds) or other animals that are sick or are found dead and report them to the relevant authorities.
  • Wash hands properly with soap or a suitable disinfectant.
  • Follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.
See also the WHO video: Influenza, an Unpredictable Threat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhhJfT86Bgg

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:22 pm

Useful Links & Explanation of Abbreviations

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 8:27 pm

H5N8/H5N6 News Selection
  • 2016, December 08. Europe. “Current concerns among veterinarians include the potential ability of A(H5N8) to infect mammals such as cats and dogs: thus precautions should be put in place to minimise the risk of exposure for these animals.” Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 49 http://eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle ... leId=22663
  • 2016 December 19. South Korea. “The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs said Monday a highly pathogenic H5N8 strain of the flu virus was found in a wild bird's excrement near Anseong Stream in Gyeonggi Province. This strain is the same one that spread in 2014, but different from H5N6, which has swept the country except for Jeju Island since November.” (The Korea Times) Read more: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/na ... 20430.html
  • 2017, January 18. China. “The national reference lab confirmed the samples from dead black swans in a poultry farm in Hanyang district of Wuhan city in Hubei province tested positive for H5N8 HPAIV. 99 black swans died by 9th, Jan.” http://www.flu.org.cn/en/news-18934.html
  • 2017 March 31. Europe. Risk Estimation, FLI/Germany. “The detection of HPAIV H5N8 in 29 European countries (…) and the rapid distribution of the virus indicate a highly dynamic spatial spread of the infection. For the first time since onset of the current fowl plague epidemic the number of reports in wild birds has decreased considerably; in contrast, new outbreaks are reported almost daily from the German region with the highest poultry density in Lower Saxony. This is the most severe and most long-lasting fowl plague epidemic in Europe and Germany since outbreaks have been recorded.” Read more: https://www.fli.de/en/news/animal-disea ... wl-plague/
  • 2017, April 05. Denmark. According to the just released Eagle Project Report 2016, the Danish Ornithological Society (DOF) was at the end of the year aware of eight sea eagles which showed symptoms of avian influenza and were found dead or dying. Read more (PDF in Danish): Årsrapport 2016, Projekt Ørn, DOF
  • 2017, April 06. South Korea: Experimental infection of dogs with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385007
  • 2017, April 12. Map: H5N8 in Europe October 2016 - April 2017 (© European Union, 1995-2017) https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/fi ... 17_map.pdf
  • 2017, June 22. H5N8 confirmed in South Africa
  • 2017, October 31. Japan. “Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (…) continue to be reported in wild bird populations. Due to the possibility that the virus is spreading from white-tailed eagles that come in to eat the fish that are scattered as feed for the cranes, this practice has been stopped in some areas.” http://www.nippon.com/en/features/c03907/
  • 2017, November 02. New Study: Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016 EID Journal, Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017 (ahead of print) https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/12/17-1062_article
  • 2017, November 13. Danish White-tailed Eagle population declines for the first time in two decades due to H5N8. DOF News
  • 2017, November 21. The latest updates on avian influenza (bird flu) in winter 2017 to 2018. DEFRA https://www.gov.uk/government/news/avia ... 17-to-2018
  • 2017, December 05. Migratory bird infected with H5N6 bird flu in Southern Taiwan. According to the article, “the H5 subtype found in this incident was different from the previous bird flu strains reported in Hsinchu in February of this year; however, the result showed similarity in the gene with the H5N8 bird flu found in Europe (…).” Taiwan News https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3313222
  • 2017, December 22. H5N8 confirmed in Saudi Arabia
  • 2018 January 09. Bird flu confirmed in Iraq (H5N8) and Afghanistan (H5)
  • 2018 January 16. India. H5N8 confirmed in Karnataka
  • 2018 January 17. Japan. Highly pathogenic H5N6-type virus found in dead goshawk in Tokyo prompts Japan’s Environment Ministry to raise avian influenza alert level. Source: Japan Times
  • 2018, January 22. Rapid risk assessment on the finding of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N6) in wild birds in England and Wales. Map, page 5: Outbreaks of H5N6 HPAI and H5N8 HPAI in poultry, captive and wild birds October 2017-January 2018. Reports of H5N8 HPAI in captive birds, wild birds and poultry from October 2016 to 9th January 2018. Reports of H5N6 HPAI are superimposed to demonstrate the difference in the infection pressure (see page 6) https://www.gov.uk/government/publicati ... -in-europe
  • 2018, February 06. First confirmed case of avian Influenza H5N6 in White-tailed Eagles. The bird was found dead in County Tipperary, Ireland. Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine
  • 2018 February 21. White-tailed Eagle first case of H5N6 in Sweden. Confirmed by the Swedish National Veterinary Institute
  • 2018 March 01, Denmark. H5N6 in White-tailed Eagle confirmed by the Ministry of Environment and Food
  • 2018 March 05. H5N8 outbreak in Bulgaria near Romanian border
  • 2018 March 07. China reports H5N6 outbreak in domestic ducks
  • 2018 March 09, Ireland. Second case of bird flu H5N6 confirmed (common buzzard, Co. Tipperary)
  • 2018, March 13, Ireland. Third case of H5N6 confirmed by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine - a second WtE was found dead
  • 2018, March 14. Swedish Board of Agriculture confirms second case of H5N6 in the country (common buzzard, Blekinge region)
  • 2018, March 16, Sweden. First case of H5N6 in domestic birds confirmed in a backyard flock in Östhammar, Uppsala County. Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture
  • 2018, March 21, Germany: First case of H5N6 in domestic birds. FLI confirmed the new avian influenza strain in a flock of 57 ducks, chickens, turkey hens and geese on the small island Hallig Süderoog. Press release, Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment, Nature and Digitalization of Schleswig-Holstein
  • 2018, March 28. WtE first known case of avian Influenza (H5) in Finland in 2018. March 29: H5N6 confirmed by Evira
  • 2018, Denmark. About 30 swans and other waterfowl found dead on Tuesday, 27 March near Maribo (Lolland). Test results expected after Easter. Source: fyens.dk
  • 2018, Sweden. April 04. Third case of avian Influenza in wild birds confirmed (WtE)
  • 2018, April 04. Global situation update, map. Source: FAO http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRI ... pdate.html
  • 2018, April 11. Sweden confirms fourth case of H5N6, a WtE, found in Blekinge county
  • 2018, April 25. Finland and Sweden confirm new cases of H5N6 (Finland WtE/Sweden common buzzard)
  • 2018, April 27, Denmark. So far, 27 cases of H5N6 have been confirmed in the country in 2018 (only in wild birds). Source: Danish Ministry of Environment and Food
  • 2018 May 06. Denmark. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus in poultry holding near Holstebro; 20.000 ducks to be killed. Ministry of Environment and Food/Vet and Food Administration, press release
  • 2018, May 18. Defra update: Avian influenza (bird flu) H5N6 and H5N8 in Europe and in the UK https://www.gov.uk/government/publicati ... -in-europe
  • 2018, May 24. Sweden. Low pathogenic H5 virus reported from Skåne, near Malmö. National Veterinary Institute
  • 2018, June 22. Denmark. “On March 27th, a white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) was observed flying against a tree in Herlufmagle, and on April 1st the eagle was euthanized. On June 1st the National Veterinary Institute confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N6) in samples from the eagle.” OIE Report, Follow-up report No. 3, received on 22/06/2018 from Dr Per Starcke Henriksen, Chief Veterinary Officer, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
  • 2018, July 11. Germany. White-Tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus Albicilla) Die-Off due to Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus, Subtype H5N8, in Germany. Krone, O. et al. (full text/PDF available via Google)

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:03 pm

Maps/Regular Updates - Avian Influenza 2016/2017

Global Animal Disease Information System http://empres-i.fao.org/eipws3g/#h=0
Europe - Avian Influenza Outbreaks since 28 October 2016. https://iadm.carto.com/me

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:21 pm

List of Cases

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm

Germany

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm

Germany

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm

Germany

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:22 pm

Denmark

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:23 pm

Sweden

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:26 pm

Finland

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:27 pm

Finland

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Post by maertha » December 8th, 2016, 9:37 pm

Finland

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Post by maertha » December 13th, 2016, 5:37 pm

Sweden - case is under investigation

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Post by maertha » December 13th, 2016, 5:37 pm

Sweden - Case is under investigation

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Post by maertha » December 13th, 2016, 5:38 pm

Germany

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Post by maertha » December 16th, 2016, 5:24 pm

Germany

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