Facts and bits about Greater Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga)

Database with information about Lesser and Greater Spotted Eagles

Moderator: maertha/felis silvestris

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Facts and bits about Greater Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga)

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 12:43 am

Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Spotted_Eagle

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/specie ... hp?id=3531

http://www.birdguides.com/species/species.asp?sp=30197


Greater Spotted Eagle


Names
English: Greater Spotted Eagle
Scientific: Lophaetus clanga, Aquila clanga
German: Schelladler
Spanish: Águila moteada
French: Aigle criard

Taxonomy and Subspecies
Closest relatives are the Lesser Spotted Eagle, the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata and the Long-crested Eagle Lophaetus occipitalis from Africa. Currently the Greater Spotted eagle is either placed in the Genus Lophaetus or Aquila.
Hybridization with the Lesser Spotted Eagle does occur [GRIN 2009].
No subspecies.

Size
Length: 62-75 cm
Wingspan: 160-182 cm
Weight: Male 1,600-2,000 g, Female 1,770-3,100 g

Maximum Age
Unknown. [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]

Habitat
Prefers remote areas with no or only few humans. During the breeding seasons, the Greater Spotted Eagle lives in a mixture of wet deciduous forests and open areas like wet meadows, swamps and marshes.
Outside the breeding season also occurs in more open and drier habitat [GRIN 2009].

Distribution
Breeds from eastern Europe eastwards to Siberia and China. In Europe the species breeds in the Baltic States, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, eastern Poland and maybe in Moldova and Romania. Also occurred in Finland with 1-2 pairs.
In Germany there are two cases in recent years with a mixed pair of a Greater Spotted Eagle and a Lesser Spotted Eagle.

Migration
Migratory species, but not as extreme as the Lesser Spotted Eagle. Most European birds spend the winter in the Middle East and north-eastern Africa and some spend the winter in Greece and Turkey. Occasionally birds stay even in Italy or France during the Winter [Mebs & Schmidt 2006].
On average, leaves the breeding territories later than the Lesser Spotted Eagle

Breeding and Reproduction
Probably does net breed before 4 or 5 years old [Mebs & Schmidt 2006].
Nests are built on trees. Normally 2 eggs are laid, rarely 1 or 3. Incubation time about 42 days and the young stay in the next for about 63 - 67 days [GRIN 2009].
After hatching, the older nestling often kills the second born. This is called Cainism. But in some cases two young fledge. This seems to occur more often than with the Lesser Spotted Eagle [Mebs & Schmidt 2006].

Food and hunting
Hunts mostly small mammals (e.g. voles, hamsters or susliks) and birds like coots, rails or ducks. During the breeding season, often hunts the easy to catch young of those birds. Other prey includes lizards, snakes, frogs, fish. Also takes carrion.
In many areas, the Northern Water Vole Arvicola terrestris is especially important [GRIN 2009]. In Africa, locusts can be an important prey [Mebs and Schmidt 2006].
Hunts from flight, from a perch or on foot.

Population
On of the rarest and most endangered raptors in Europe. Has declined considerably in the last 3 decades. Outside Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, the population is below 100 pairs.
Poland has about 15-20 pairs, Ukraine 30-45, Estonia 15-30, Belarus 150-200 and Russia between 600 and 800 [BirdLife 2004].

Threats
The large decline in Russia in the 1960s was probably because of the use zinc phosphide of which was used to kill European Water Vole which is an important prey of the Greater Spotted Eagle. Zinc phosphide is very dangerous for birds [Mebs & Schmidt 2006].
Other threats to the Greater Spotted Eagle are habitat destruction, for example the drainage of wetlands or deforestation. Illegal killing, for example during migration, can also be a problem. Disturbance during the breeding season can result in breeding failure.

Conservation
The illegal killing, no matter where, must be stopped. Important habitat must be protected. The Greater Spotted Eagle is an umbrella species. In it's habitat, many other endangered species live. If large range of habitat for the species can be protect, many other species will benefit.
More research about threats in the breeding areas but also during migration and in the winter quarters is needed [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. Extensive agriculture that supports a wide variety of prey and does not use pesticides should be encouraged across the species range.

Status IUCN/BirdLife
Vulnerable (VU)
Status Global Raptor Information Network
Vulnerable

(Quoted from: http://www.europeanraptors.org/raptors/ ... eagle.html)

Sound
http://www.oiseaux.net/oiseaux/accipitr ... clanga.mp3

1970–1990 trend Aquila clanga Country Breeding population size:
http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/userfi ... Sp3531.pdf


User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 12:56 pm

Tõnn

Tõnn is from Läänemaa County (western Estonia), has got transmitter when he was still in nest, in 7th August 2008. He had also a white plastic ring 7F, but lost that by third wintering year. Tõnn started its first migration in 25th of September 2008, crossed several countries and stopped for wintering in Spain, El Hondo wetlands. There spent winter and left his wintering grounds on April 13th and got himself moving in a northern direction. So the eagle visited also Nederlands and directed by the sea - moved towards to homeland. But Estonia was not a destination for Tõnn - he flew to Finland and spent all the summer near Vaasa (western Finland). On second fall migration Tõnn stopped also in southern Estonia, during a harvesting of crops. Afterwards moved again to Spain, crossing a Switzerland as a new country for him. Third summer Tõnn spent mostly in Sweden and used migration route directly over Danish straits.
A wintering place is exactly the same as in previous years - Spain, El Hondo wetlands. Tõnn has visited 15 European countries by third winter and there is no much left along normal migration route...
Tõnn schould start breeding in age of three or four years, but we will see. Our data are based on literature, but there are very few proofs available (due the rarity of that species).

Young Greater Spotted Eagle http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/1708

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 12:56 pm

***

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 12:57 pm

Tõnn's Travels

2008


Tõnn in Germany 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/1749
Tõnn in West Germany 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/1798
Tõnn in France 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/1905
Tõnn in Spain 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2046
Tõnn seeks a wintering place 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2127
Has Tõnn found his wintering grounds? 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2219
Tõnn spends Christmas in the El Hondo Wetlands 2008 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2314

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 12:57 pm

2009

Tõnn Winters http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2402
German Bird Journal Der Falke Writes About Tõnn 2009 http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2576
Greater Spotted Eagle Tõnn http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/2601
Where is Tõnn? http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/3017
Greater Spotted Eagle Tõnn Surprises http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/3606
Tõnn gets to know the Baltic coast http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/3668
Tõnn seeks a homeward course http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/3855

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 1:53 pm


User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 2:33 pm

Greater spotted eagle Tõnn left Estonia http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/4956
Tõnn nearly in France http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/5141
Tõnn in Geneva http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/5209
Tõnn has reached Spain http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/5259
Tõnn has arrived in his winter quarters http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/5311
Tõnn wintering http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/5515


Where do our eagles spend the winter? http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/6350

Interview with B.-U. Meyburg and members of national rarieties committees of Germany, Austria and Switzerland about Tõnn. 2009. In German language http://www.schattenblick.de/infopool/na ... rn105.html

Tõnn in France:
Tõnn, un Aigle criard Aquila clanga sous haute surveillance... (in French language)
http://www.chn-france.org/upload_conten ... rect_8.pdf

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 2:38 pm

2010

Oss has arrived, Tõnn has started his migrationhttp://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/7027

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 2:38 pm

2011

Rare Eagle Abandons Estonian Homeland

http://news.err.ee/environment/2a42240f ... 62898b0230

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 2:38 pm

2012

Tõnn left for Finland http://www.looduskalender.ee/en/node/13437

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 2:38 pm

2013

Tõnn first time spotted in Germany: http://ornitho.de/index.php?m_id=1164&a=N90&langu=de



2014

The transmitter stopped working, so far attempts at catching Tõnn at his winter refuge in El Hondo have failed


2015

Tõnn is again at his favourite wintering spot: http://www.finesystem.co.uk/birdwatchin ... hondo.html

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 17th, 2012, 11:19 am

***

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 17th, 2012, 11:21 am

***

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:35 pm

Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga conservation projects in Poland

http://aqc.aquila-it.pl/

http://en.orlikgrubodzioby.org.pl/

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:35 pm

Zygmunt 2012

Zygmunt's migration map:

http://aqc.aquila-it.pl/index.php?optio ... 89&lang=en

With many thanks for the permission to Kordian Bartoszuk

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:36 pm

Seminar in Podgorica as a beginning of an international cooperation for Greater Spotted Eagle conservation

A seminar GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE – A BIRD LIKE NO OTHER, on conservation of Greater Spotted Eagles and other birds of prey took place on 12th March in Podgorica. Three months after the death of Bruzda, shot dead on the border of Lake Skadar National Park, we were discussing improvements in protecting birds migrating through Balkans.

Find more on the seminar:
http://en.orlikgrubodzioby.org.pl/artyk ... nservation

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:36 pm

***

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:36 pm

***

User avatar
Felis silvestris
Site Admin
Posts: 19574
Joined: February 20th, 2011, 4:54 pm
Location: Germany

Post by Felis silvestris » October 27th, 2012, 6:37 pm

***

Locked

Return to “The Aquila Pomarina Collection”