Indian Spotted Eagle - Aquila hastata

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Indian Spotted Eagle - Aquila hastata

Post by Felis silvestris » January 5th, 2012, 9:49 pm

Indian Spotted Eagle (Aquila hastata)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Spotted_Eagle
http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/specie ... p?id=31036
http://www.planetofbirds.com/accipitrif ... la-hastata

Indian Spotted Eagle


Names:
Aquila hastata, Lophaetus hastatus, Indian Spotted-eagle, Long-legged Eagle, Small Indian Spotted Eagle.


Distribution:
Indomalayan. Northern India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and possibly Cambodia.

Subspecies:
Monotypic.

Taxonomy:
Although it was originally regarded as specifically distinct from the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Lophaetus pomarinus), the two forms were treated as a single species by Hartert (1914-1922) and most subsequent authorities until recently. Parry et al. (2002) provided conclusive evidence that this form should be treated as a full species on the basis of differences from L. pomarinus in external morphology, osteology, behavior, and clutch size. This conclusion was also supported by the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene studies of Väli (2006), which showed that the genetic distance between L. hastatus and the Greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles is larger than between the two latter species at this locus. The molecular phylogenetic analyses of Seibold (1994), Seibold et al. (1996), Helbig et al. (2005) and Lerner and Mindell (2005) indicated that Aquila clanga and A. pomarina (and thus A. hastata) form a monophylum with each other and the Long-crested Eagle. They recommended that these species be merged into the genus Lophaetus, requiring the name change from hastata to hastatus for gender reasons. Some systematists (e.g., Wink and Sauer-Gürth 2004 and Gjershaug 2006) would favor merging the genus Lophaetus into Aquila.

Movements:
Sedentary (Parry et al. 2002), unlike the related Lesser and Greater Spotted Eagles, both of which are highly migratory.

Habitat and Habits:
Occurs in open woods. cultivation and near water, even in urban gardens (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). Found in open areas, including low intensity agriculture, wetlands, open forest, and forest clearings (BirdLife International). Prakash (1988, 1996) characterized the preferred habitat as groves of trees surrounded by grassland and fields in summer, and during winter, it prefers marshes close to grassland and forest. Rasmussen and Alderton (2005) commented on its tameness, while perching in trees in paddyfields and sometimes even nesting in large urban parks.

Food and Feeding Behavior:
Feeds mostly on mammals, which it captures on the ground, and also prey upon frogs and birds. At one nest, Prakash (1996) recorded 10 species of prey, including mammals (47%), birds (33%), reptiles (16%, and amphibians (3%).

Breeding:
Nesting details are mainly from Prakash (1996). The nest is a circular, flat stucture placed in a fork near the top of a tree. It is built primarily by the female, although the male occasionally brings sticks which she arranges in the nest. Clutch size is usually one egg, sometimes two (n = 26) (Parry et al. 2002). Obligatory siblicide, as is the case with L. pomarinus, has not been confirmed in this species, because none of the few documented two-egg clutches has been observed during the nestling period. Both sexes incubate, with the female doing the majority in the daytime, and the incubation period lasts at least 31 days. The male does all the hunting and brings food to the nest; the female feeds the young and does not begin hunting until the seventh week. At one nest, the nestling period was 71 days (Prakash op cit.).

Conservation:
The actual status of this newly "re-separated" species is uncertain, but it appears to be a relatively widespread form that has always been recorded at very low density throughout the lowlands of the northern half of the Indian subcontinent (Naoroji 2006). It is clearly threatened by the conversion of forest to agricultural habitat, human encroachment, and disturbance (Prakash 1996, Naoroji op cit.), and Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) also mentioned that it deserts its nest easily. Naoroji (op cit.) listed a number of previously unreported records, and commented that it might be "not so endangered as many believe." Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) described it as "probably uncommon and local," so it may be best categorized as Vulnerable, as BirdLife International has recommended, pending further study. Rasmussen and Anderton (op cit.) and the preparers of the BirdLife fact sheet rightly pointed out that verifying the true status and distribution of this eagle is hampered by identification problems, owing to its similarity to the more common Greater Spotted Eagle.

Population Estimates:
Prakash (1996) estimated that the world population is probably fewer than 100 pairs, and if that is the case, it is one of the rarest raptor species in the world. However, Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) pointed out that any population estimate for this species would be a "mere guess." BirdLife International (2009) estimated the number of mature birds as between 2,500-9,999 individuals, while noting that the supporting data for this estimate are poor.


Status:
Vulnerable

Population Trend:
Declining.

Quoted from: http://www.globalraptors.org/grin/Speci ... pecID=8165

Names of the Indian Spotted Eagle, historical and current, scientific and colloquial:

Czech = orel indický
English = Indian Spotted Eagle, Lesser spotted eagle
Estonian = lõuna-konnakotkas
French = Aigle lancéolé
German = Indischer Schreiadler, Schreiadler-hastata
Italian = Aquila anatraia indiana, Aquila anatraia minore
Japanese = インドワシ = indowashi
Latin = Aquila hastata, Aquila pomarina hastata, Ictinaetus hastatus
Norwegian = Indiaskrikørn
Slowakian = orol indický
Spanish = Águila Moteada Hindú
Swedish = Indisk skrikörn
Hindi= Pahari teesa,
Punjabi= Chhota china ukaab,
Bengali= Gutimaar,
Gujarati= Nano tapkivalo jummas, Nano kalo jummas



Gangesadler, Long-legged Eagle, Small Indian Spotted Eagle


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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 3:47 pm

Historical Sources

1. Curious behaviour of Aquila hastata, the Lesser Spotted Eagle by S. L. Whymper. 1908
in: Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 18:187

2. On the nesting habits of Small Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata by J. Davidson. 1908
in: Journal of the Bombay Natural History society, 18:682-683


A digital scan version of The Journal of the Bombay Historical Society is available here:

http://archive.org/details/journalofbombayn18bomb

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 3:47 pm

***

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 3:49 pm

INDEX

1. Mitochondrial DNA sequences support species status for the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata - Full text available online

2. Status, Distribution and Breeding Biology of Lesser Spotted EagleAquila pomarina hastata in Keoladeo National Park - Full text available online

3. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata - Only abstract available free

4. Notes on the breeding of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata - Full text available online

5. First confirmed record and first breeding record of Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata in Indochina - Full text available online

6. An Account on the Habitats and Threats Vis-À-Vis Indian Spotted Eagle in Kurukshetra Environs in Haryana (India) - Full text available online

7. Aquila eagles in Kerala, India. 2004 - Full text available online

8. Lesser spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina hastata) nesting in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur. 1989 - No Full text available online

9. Sightings of two rare raptors, Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina and Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos, in Pakistan. 1995 - PDF available online

10. First-winter Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. 2004 - No Full text available online

11. Reviewing the conservation status of three Asian Aquila eagles. 2009 - No Full text available online

12. Predation by Aquila eagles on nestling storks and herons in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur. 1990 - No Full text available online

13. An Account on the Habitats and Threats Vis-À-Vis Indian Spotted Eagle in Kurukshetra Environs in Haryana (India) - PDF available online

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 3:49 pm

INDEX

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 3:50 pm

INDEX

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 4:26 pm

1. Mitochondrial DNA sequences support species status for the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata

"The taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila (pomarina) hastata has been an issue of dispute. Originally described as a species, Morphnus hastatus Lesson, 1834, it was subsequently considered a subspecies of Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina C. L. Brehm, 1831. Nominate A. p. pomarina breeds mainly in eastern and central Europe, and in the Middle East, and is entirely migratory, whilst A. (p.) hastata is a sedentary form restricted to India. The breeding ranges of the two are separated by thousands of kilometres, preventing any study of the reproductive barrier between them, the most important difference according to the Biological Species Concept. Parry et al. (2002) found a number of morphological differences between the two taxa, which led them to propose specific status for A. (p.) hastata. The most striking difference noted was in gape width, smallest in A. p. pomarina, intermediate in Greater Spotted Eagle A. clanga Pallas, 1811, a closely related but separate species, and largest in A. (p.) hastata."

Ülo Väli

Received 1 November 2005

Published in: Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126:238-242
Full Text available online:
https://www.etis.ee/ShowFile.aspx?FileVID=11826

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 5:13 pm

2. Status, Distribution and Breeding Biology of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina hastata in Keoladeo National Park

"The Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina hastata is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent. This paper describes its only known nest recorded for 81 years (Prakash 1988), and observations on its breeding biology recorded for the first time. Its present status and distribution in its known range is described. Unlike the nominate race pomarina, nothing is known about its ecology, except for general and incidental published notes on its occurrence, habitat and behaviour (Ali & Ripley 1982; Baker 1932; Davidson 1908; Whymper 1905; Jesse 1903; Anderson 1875). In the literature, wherever it occurs, it has been described as rare (Ali & Ripley 1983). Its distribution covers the Gangetic plains east through Bihar, Bengal and Bangladesh, and south to Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. One record is from as far as the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu in south India. In Assam, it occurs both north and south of the Brahmaputra and also in Manipur (Ali & Ripley 1983)"

Vibhu Prakash

Published in: Eagle Studies / B.-U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor (eds.)
Berlin, London & Paris 1996 - ISBN 3-9801961-1-9
Available online: http://www.raptors-international.org/bo ... _1996.html
Article available online:
http://www.raptors-international.org/bo ... 57-375.pdf

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 5:30 pm

3. On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata
Parry, S.J., W.S. Clark, and V. Prakash

Only Abstract available free

We review the status of the two currently recognized subspecies of Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila p. pomarina (western Eurasia) and A. p. hastata (Indian subcontinent) on the basis of museum diagnosis and field observations. We present differences between these two allopatric taxa which demonstrate that they should be treated as distinct species. Specifically, we present evidence of differences in plumage (both for adults and juveniles), external morphology, osteology, clutch size and behaviour. Particular emphasis is placed on differences in gape size and general cranial structure.

Published in: Ibis, Volume 144, Issue 4, Pages 665-675 Oct. 2002

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 5:46 pm

4. Notes on the breeding of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata

"The Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata is a rare, endemic (Ali & Ripley 1987), and ‘Vulnerable’ (BirdLife International 2004) species restricted to the Indian subcontinent. It is distributed sparingly in north India over the Gangetic plains, in eastern India up to Manipur and in central India in Madhya Pradesh and southern Orissa (Ali & Ripley 1987, Prakash 1996). In south India, its distribution is limited to Kotagiri and Mudumalai, Nilgiri district, Tamilnadu (Ali & Ripley 1987, BirdLife International 2004), and Tumkur, Karnataka (Davidson 1908) ..."

A. Shivprakash, K. R. Kishen Das, Thejaswi Shivanand, T. Girija, & A. Sharath

Published in: Indian Birds Vol. 2 No. 1 (January-February 2006)

Available online:
http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Notes%20 ... eeding.pdf

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Post by Felis silvestris » January 6th, 2012, 6:41 pm

5. First confirmed record and first breeding record of Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata in Indochina


by Markus Handschuh, Robert N. van Zalinge, Urban Olsson

Published in:
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 131:118-122


English Full text available online:
http://birdlifeindochina.org/sites/defa ... bler38.pdf

German Full text available online:
Der Indische Schreiadler: Möglicher erster Brutnachweis der Art in Kambodscha
von Markus Handschuh, Thiemo Braasch, Robert van Zalinge und Hong Chamnan
http://www.accb-cambodia.org/en/25_2b.pdf
ZGAP Mitteilungen. 25.2009, Heft 2, p. 30-31

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Post by Felis silvestris » February 7th, 2013, 8:07 pm

6. An Account on the Habitats and Threats Vis-À-Vis Indian Spotted Eagle in Kurukshetra Environs in Haryana (India)

by Rohtash Chand Gupta and Tirshem Kumar Kaushik

Published in: World Journal of Zoology 7 (3): 241-244, 2012

English Full Text available online:
http://idosi.org/wjz/wjz7%283%2912/13.pdf

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Post by Felis silvestris » August 17th, 2013, 11:15 pm

7. Aquila eagles in Kerala, India. 2004

by C. Sashikumar

Published in:

Newsletter for Ornithologists Vol. 1. 2004, No. 4 p. 53 - 54

A PDF download of the the article is available here:

http://indianbirds.in/pdfs/NLO.1.4.Aquila.pdf


view also:
viewtopic.php?p=270594#p270594

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Post by Felis silvestris » September 12th, 2013, 10:09 pm

8. Lesser spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina hastata) nesting in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur. 1989

by V. Prakash

Published in:
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 85.1988, [3]

Full text available by buying the issue or by finding a Subscribing Institution
Scanned issue available through Biodiversity Heritage Library: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibl ... 4#/summary

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Post by Felis silvestris » September 12th, 2013, 10:12 pm

9. Sightings of two rare raptors, Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina and Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos, in Pakistan. 1995

by W. S. Clark and A. A. Khan

Published in: Forktail 1995, 10 (February), p. 173-175

PDF available Here:

http://orientalbirdclub.org/wp-content/ ... kistan.pdf

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Post by Felis silvestris » September 12th, 2013, 10:16 pm

10. First-winter Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. 2004

by M. Kapanen, A. Lindholm und A. Forsten

Published in:
Alula. 10:74-78

Full text available by finding a Subscribing Institution
(Journal ceased to exist and there are no more online archives available)

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Post by Felis silvestris » September 12th, 2013, 10:18 pm

11. Birds to watch: Reviewing the conservation status of three Asian Aquila eagles. 2009

by Jeremy P. Bird, Andrew. J. Symes

Published in:
Birding ASIA: 2009, 12 (December), p. 112

Full text available by buying the issue or by finding a Subscribing Institution

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Post by Felis silvestris » September 24th, 2013, 9:37 pm

12. Predation by Aquila eagles on nestling storks and herons in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur. 1990

by Rishad Naoroji

Published in:

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 87.1990 (1): p. 37-46

Full text available by buying the issue or by finding a Subscribing Institution
Scanned issue available through Biodiversity Heritage Library: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibl ... 4#/summary

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Post by Felis silvestris » April 11th, 2014, 4:06 pm

13. An Account on the Habitats and Threats Vis-À-Vis Indian Spotted Eagle in Kurukshetra Environs in Haryana (India)

by Rohtash Chand Gupta and Tirshem Kumar Kaushik

Published in:

World Journal of Zoology 7 (3): 241-244, 2012

PDF available here: http://idosi.org/wjz/wjz7(3)12/13.pdf

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